Conducting polypyrrole (PPy) nanotube arrays, nanotube networks and irregular films are deposited on biomedical titanium. By in situ application of weak periodic potentials, the nanostructured conducting polymers undergo a reversible switch in wettability, which is a redox process of dopant molecules (as hydrophilic groups) immobilized and de-immobilized on the surface of the conducting polymers.
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