• beverages;
  • biofuel cells;
  • buffer solutions;
  • multi-enzyme systems;
  • sucrose


A carbon-felt-based multi-enzyme immobilized bioanode for biofuel cells has been successfully developed. The combination of four enzymes, namely, invertase, mutarotase, glucose oxidase, and fructose dehydrogenase, makes it possible to use sucrose—a disaccharide—as fuel for the bioanode. The new electrode exhibits a high oxidation current density of about 12 mA cm−2 (0.25 V vs. Ag/AgCl) in a McIlvaine buffer solution containing sucrose at pH 6.0 in the half-cell configuration. A sucrose/O2 biofuel cell composed of the bioanode and an opposite biocathode, including bilirubin oxidase as the enzymatic electrocatalyst, was fabricated, and the new device demonstrated a maximum power density of 2.90 mW cm−2 with an open-circuit voltage of 0.69 V in the McIlvaine buffer solution. The biofuel cell fabricated using our multi-enzyme anode operates in commercially available beverages that contain only sugar, even without glucose.