ChemPhysChem

Cover image for Vol. 13 Issue 8

Special Issue: This issue contains a special section on Nanobubbles

June 4, 2012

Volume 13, Issue 8

Pages 1965–2219

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Cover
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Review
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    8. Communications
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    1. Cover Picture: STED Microscopy and its Applications: New Insights into Cellular Processes on the Nanoscale (ChemPhysChem 8/2012) (page 1965)

      Dr. Tobias Müller, Dr. Christian Schumann and Dr. Annette Kraegeloh

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201290035

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      Recent advances have expanded the application of STED microscopy to various topics from cell biology to material science. On p. 1986, A. Kraegeloh et al. introduce the working principle and discuss new techniques and their usage for structural and functional analyses.

  2. Inside Cover

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    1. Inside Cover: Acene-Modified Triphenylamine Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: A Computational Study (ChemPhysChem 8/2012) (page 1966)

      Wenjie Fan, Dazhi Tan and Prof. Wei-Qiao Deng

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201290036

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      On p. 2051 W. Deng et al. study acene-modified triphenylamine dyes and they predict that TPA-AC3 with an anthracene moiety shows a balance of energetic and spectroscopic parameters, and is promising for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  3. Graphical Abstract

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  4. News

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    1. Looking for Tomorrow′s Materials (page 1985)

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201200385

  5. Review

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    1. STED Microscopy and its Applications: New Insights into Cellular Processes on the Nanoscale (pages 1986–2000)

      Dr. Tobias Müller, Dr. Christian Schumann and Dr. Annette Kraegeloh

      Version of Record online: 28 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201100986

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      All things bright and beautiful: Superresolution STED microscopy has become a versatile tool for the study of nanoscale objects (see picture), be it cellular components in life sciences or nanoparticles in the material sciences. This review provides insight into the working principle, the latest advances and developments and the applications of STED microscopy.

  6. Minireview

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    1. Photoinduced Symmetry-Breaking Charge Separation (pages 2001–2011)

      Prof. Dr. Eric Vauthey

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201200106

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      Fearful symmetry: In some molecular systems, two or more apparently equivalent charge separation pathways exist upon photoexcitation (see picture). In all cases, charge separation involves symmetry breaking. The conditions for such process to be operative as well as the origin of the symmetry breaking are discussed.

  7. Communications

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    1. Catalytic Efficiency of a Photoenzyme—An Adaptation to Natural Light Conditions (pages 2013–2015)

      Robert Hanf, Sonja Fey, Prof. Michael Schmitt, Dr. Gudrun Hermann, Prof. Benjamin Dietzek and Prof. Jürgen Popp

      Version of Record online: 13 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201200194

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      Cheap and safe: The catalytic efficiency of a light-dependent photoenzyme (NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase) is investigated as a function of the excitation wavelength (see picture). It becomes evident that “red” photons are more efficiently utilized in enzyme catalysis than “blue” photons. This shows an adaptation of the enzyme activity to the natural light conditions.

    2. Molecular Confinement in Fluorescent Magnetic Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles: Effect of Pore Size on Multifunctionality (pages 2016–2019)

      Jixi Zhang, Dr. Jessica M. Rosenholm and Prof. Hongchen Gu

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201100943

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      Like Swiss cheese: The fabrication of PEG-modified FITC-labeled magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (F-M-MSN) with three different pore sizes is described (see picture). Based on molecular confinement, the effect of pore size on their dual-modal imaging and drug delivery properties is explored.

    3. Electrochemical Detection of the Thermally Induced Phase Transition of a Thin Stimuli-Responsive Polymer Film (pages 2020–2023)

      Artur Fandrich, Jens Buller, Dr. Erik Wischerhoff, Prof. André Laschewsky and Prof. Fred Lisdat

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201100924

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      Quick and easy: An efficient approach for a direct observation of a thermally induced phase transition of a responsive polymer film on gold surfaces is described (see schematic). Voltammetric measurements show that the peak current and the peak separation for a small redox couple are particularly sensitive to the conformational change of the polymer film and allow its phase transition detection.

  8. Articles

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    1. Defects in MOFs: A Thorough Characterization (pages 2025–2029)

      Prof. Dr. Petko St. Petkov, Prof. Dr. Georgi N. Vayssilov, Dr. Jinxuan Liu, Dr. Osama Shekhah, Dr. Yuemin Wang, Prof. Dr. Christof Wöll and Prof. Dr. Thomas Heine

      Version of Record online: 19 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201200222

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      Nobody′s perfect: As indicated by nearly perfect XRD data, but challenged by a two-signal IR spectrum of CO guest molecules, it is confirmed by computer simulations and XPS experiments (see picture) that the most defect-free SURMOFs contain about 4 % defective Cu sites.

    2. Photoinduced Electron Transfer in a Ferrocene–Distyryl BODIPY Dyad and a Ferrocene–Distyryl BODIPY–C60 Triad (pages 2030–2036)

      Dr. Jian-Yong Liu, Dr. Mohamed E. El-Khouly, Prof. Shunichi Fukuzumi and Prof. Dennis K. P. Ng

      Version of Record online: 13 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201200167

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      Promising dyes: The photoinduced electron-transfer properties of a ferrocene–distyryl BODIPY dyad and a ferrocene–distyryl BODIPY–C60 triad (BODIPY: boron dipyrromethene) are studied. The triad undergoes a relatively slow charge recombination, giving a charge-separated state with a lifetime of 500 ps.

    3. Examination of the Coordination Sphere of AlIII in Trifluoromethyl-Heteroarylalkenolato Complex Ions by Gas-Phase IRMPD Spectroscopy and Computational Modelling (pages 2037–2045)

      Lisa Brückmann, Dr. Wieland Tyrra, Prof. Dr. Sanjay Mathur, Dr. Giel Berden, Prof. Dr. Jos Oomens, Dr. Anthony J. H. M. Meijer and Dr. Mathias Schäfer

      Version of Record online: 22 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201200132

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      Oxygen, but not over all: Experimental and computational results indicate that the coordination sphere built up by the planar trifluoromethyl-heteroarylalkenolato ligands around aluminium(III) is tetrahedral, The first binding site of the bidentate ligands are the negatively charged enolate oxygens, whereas the second binding site is determined by the aromatic character of the heterocycle (see picture).

    4. A Special Conjugated Model around sp3 Carbon Atoms: Density Functional Theory Study on the Homoaromatic Electron Delocalization and Applications of Benzo-Fused Tetra(triptycene)porphyrins (pages 2046–2050)

      Dongdong Qi, Lijuan Zhang, Luyang Zhao, Dr. Xue Cai and Prof. Dr. Jianzhuang Jiang

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201200076

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      Three′s a crowd: The three-unit homoaromatic electron-delocalizing nature of the benzo-fused tetra(triptycene)porphyrins with a three-dimensional conjugated model is clarified using density functional theory (see picture). The potential applications of the compounds in the fields of solar antenna collectors and host–guest chemistry are discussed.

    5. Acene-Modified Triphenylamine Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: A Computational Study (pages 2051–2060)

      Wenjie Fan, Dazhi Tan and Prof. Wei-Qiao Deng

      Version of Record online: 23 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201200064

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      In the balance: The absorption and fluorescence spectra of triphenylamine dyes modified with acenes (benzene to pentacene, TPA-AC1 to TPA-AC5) are broadened and red-shifted with increasing size of acene (see picture), but the oscillator strength and electron injection properties are reduced. TPA-AC3 with an anthracene moiety shows a balance of energetic and spectroscopic parameters, and is promising for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    6. Collapse of Homeotropic Liquid-Crystal Alignment by Increased Molecular Packing on Comb-Like Polymer Surfaces (pages 2061–2067)

      Dr. Eun-Ho Sohn, Dr. Hyo Kang, Dong-Gyun Kim, Prof. Dr. Kigook Song and Prof. Dr. Jong-Chan Lee

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201200051

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      Unexpected collapse: Ordered liquid crystals on comb-like polymer surfaces collapse after annealing treatment although molecular alignment is enhanced (see picture). In order to clarify this unusual phenomenon, molecular structure, morphology, and wettability of the polymer surfaces are systematically characterized.

    7. Supercritical Fluid Deposition of Uniform PbS Nanoparticle Films for Energy-Transfer Studies (pages 2068–2073)

      Dr. Joanna S. Wang, Dr. Gail J. Brown, Dr. Wei-Chun Hung and Dr. Chien M. Wai

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201200042

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      Size matters: Uniform PbS nanoparticle films can be deposited on different substrates, including glass in supercritical fluid CO2 for spectroscopic studies of energy transfer between PbS particles of different sizes (the picture shows the apparatus for Sc-CO2 deposition of PbS nanoparticles on glass and the as-formed film).

    8. Determination of the Static Zero-Field Splitting of Gd3+ Complexes in Solution from the Shifts of the Central Magnetic Fields of Their EPR Spectra (pages 2074–2081)

      Dr. Pascal H. Fries and Prof. Elie Belorizky

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201200030

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      Despite their differences, the approximate EPR spectrum predicted by the Redfield formalism and its “exact” counterpart obtained by Monte Carlo (MC) simulation have equal central field values, mainly proportional to the square of the magnitude of the static zero-field splitting term (see picture; dota4−=1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N′,N′′,N′′′-tetraacetate).

    9. Single-Crystal X-Ray Diffraction, Isolated-Molecule and Cluster Electronic Structure Calculations, and Scanning Electron Microscopy in an Organic solid: Models for Intramolecular Motion in 4,4′-Dimethoxybiphenyl (pages 2082–2089)

      Dr. Xianlong Wang, Dr. Lolita Rotkina, Dr. Hong Su and Prof. Peter A. Beckmann

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201101067

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      Can't have one without the other: Coupled methyl-group rotation and methoxy-group libration of 4,4′-dimethoxybiphenyl is investigated by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction (see picture), and density functional electronic structure calculations.

    10. Bonding of Gold with Unsaturated Species (pages 2090–2096)

      Dr. Paola Nava, Dr. Denis Hagebaum-Reignier and Prof. Stéphane Humbel

      Version of Record online: 13 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201101065

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      Differences in bonding nature between [AuCl(S)] and [Au(PR3)(S)]+/ [Au(NHC)(S)]+ (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene, S=alkene or alkyne) complexes are studied theoretically for understanding the activity of gold(I) catalysts. For example, the picture shows energies of formation of [AuCl(S)] (A) and [Au(PH3)(S)]+ (B) for various alkenes (S=16) and alkynes (S=713).

    11. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Fluorescent Ag Nanoclusters in Aqueous Solution (pages 2097–2101)

      Dr. Rongqing Li, Dr. Chunlei Wang, Dr. Fan Bo, Dr. Zhuyuan Wang, Dr. Haibao Shao, Dr. Shuhong Xu and Prof. Dr. Yiping Cui

      Version of Record online: 5 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201101034

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      Nuke ′em! A convenient microwave irradiation synthesis method of fluorescent Ag nanoclusters in aqueous solution is reported (see picture). Furthermore, the effect of the solution pH during the synthesis on the optical properties of Ag nanoclusters is investigated.

    12. Optical Properties of Assembled Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Gels (pages 2102–2107)

      Prof. Gordana N. Ostojic

      Version of Record online: 27 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201100970

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      Exit through the gel: Optical properties of a novel single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) aerogel produced by DNA/protein-guided assembly are investigated (see picture). Their spectra show a previously unobserved photoluminescence emission at 1.32 eV that is assigned to a phonon assisted relaxation.

    13. Electrochemistry of Carbon Nanotubes: Reactive Processes, Dual Sensing–Actuating Properties and Devices (pages 2108–2114)

      José G. Martínez, Dr. Takushi Sugino, Dr. Kinji Asaka and Prof. Dr. Toribio F. Otero

      Version of Record online: 23 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201100931

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      Electrochemical responses from carbon nanotubes (CNT) as a function of different variables are presented and discussed. The results fit those expected from chemical reactions and cannot be explained in terms of a capacitive origin (see picture). The reactive material senses the working conditions and thus shows dual sensing–actuating behaviour.

    14. Investigation on the Temperature Difference Method for Producing Nanobubbles and Their Physical Properties (pages 2115–2118)

      Min Guan, Wen Guo, Lianhua Gao, Yuzhao Tang, Prof. Jun Hu and Prof. Yaming Dong

      Version of Record online: 13 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201100912

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      Handle with care: Applying the temperature difference method the formation of nanobubbles is observed by atomic force spectroscopy. Their size, density and total volume are characterized and shown to depend on temperature.

    15. Some Evidence for the Formation of an Azo Bond during the Electroreduction of Diazonium Salts on Au Substrates (pages 2119–2127)

      Alejandra M. Ricci, Dr. Lucila P. Méndez De Leo, Prof. Federico J. Williams and Prof. Ernesto J. Calvo

      Version of Record online: 23 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201100882

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      Azo tether: Molecular films obtained by electrochemical reduction of diazonium tetrafluoroborate salts of 4-carboxy benzene and 4-amino-(2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro)-carboxy benzene on Au substrates are studied by a combination of X-ray photoelectron and polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy. The spectroscopic evidence demonstrates the formation of N[DOUBLE BOND]N bonds tethering the complexes to Au (see picture).

    16. Application Prospects of Spray-Assisted Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Colloidal Nanoparticles (pages 2128–2132)

      Dr. Tobias Otto, Paul Mundra, Matthias Schelter, Dr. Elena Frolova, Dr. Dirk Dorfs, Dr. Nikolai Gaponik and Prof. Alexander Eychmüller

      Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201200210

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      Spray-assisted layer-by-layer assembly is applied to the fabrication of functional thin film composites based on colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (see picture). The technique is capable of handling various material combinations, yielding varying functional architectures. Light-emitting devices, including those of all-inorganic design, are generated in order to demonstrate the potential applicability and versatility of this approach.

    17. Magic Pairs and Structural Transitions in Binary Metallic Clusters (pages 2133–2141)

      Dr. Liviu-Cristian Cune

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201200084

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      Magic clusters: Increasing the difference between the two types of atoms in binary metallic clusters leads to a gradual disappearance of the homo-atomic geometric magic numbers and the appearance of magic pairs corresponding to the number of atoms of each atomic species in binary nanostructures with higher stability (see picture). Changes in composition or concentration induce structural transitions and ground-state[LEFT RIGHT ARROW]isomer inversions.

    18. Comparative Study of Flavins Binding with Human Serum Albumin: A Fluorometric, Thermodynamic, and Molecular Dynamics Approach (pages 2142–2153)

      Abhigyan Sengupta, Wilbee D. Sasikala, Dr. Arnab Mukherjee and Dr. Partha Hazra

      Version of Record online: 24 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201200044

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      Where do the flavins bind? The binding interactions of riboflavin (RF), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) with human serum albumin (see picture) are monitored by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, and circular dichroism studies. The results are supported by docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies.

    19. Mutual Influence between Halogen Bonds and Cation–π Interactions: A Theoretical Study (pages 2154–2161)

      Dr. Yunxiang Lu , Yingtao Liu , Haiying Li, Xiang Zhu, Prof. Dr. Honglai Liu and Prof. Dr. Weiliang Zhu

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201200035

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      Cooperative or diminutive effects are observed when halogen bonds and cation–π interactions coexist in the same complex, depending on the mutal directions of charge transfer of the two interactions (see picture).

    20. Bismuth Hexagons: Facile Mass Synthesis, Stability and Applications (pages 2162–2169)

      Dr. Tirtha Som, Anne Simo, Robert Fenger, Gerald V. Troppenz, Roman Bansen, Norbert Pfänder, Dr. Franziska Emmerling, Dr. Jörg Rappich, Dr. Torsten Boeck and Prof. Dr. Klaus Rademann

      Version of Record online: 16 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201101009

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      Picky: The selective mass synthesis of stable, isolable, surfactant-free, single-crystalline Bi hexagons (see picture) is demonstrated by forceful electrodeposition on a Cu wire at room temperature by applying high current densities, high voltages and high electrolyte concentrations quite contrary to the usual electrodeposition methodologies. The material is promising for thermoelectric and catalytic applications.

  9. Special Section Cover

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    1. Special Section Cover: (ChemPhysChem 8/2012) (page 2171)

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201290039

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      Although gas-filled nanoscale bubbles that are stable for days to months have been identified on different solid surfaces, current theories predict that they should not exist at all. This special section is dedicated to this interesting phenomenon. James R. T. Seddon and Joost H. Weijs are kindly acknowledged for compiling this image.

  10. Editorial

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      Nanobubbles are not a Superficial Matter (pages 2173–2177)

      Dr. Philip Ball

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201200119

  11. Minireviews

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    1. A Deliberation on Nanobubbles at Surfaces and in Bulk (pages 2179–2187)

      Dr. James R. T. Seddon, Prof. Detlef Lohse, Prof. William A. Ducker and Prof. Vincent S. J. Craig

      Version of Record online: 29 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201100900

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      On the bubble: Surface and bulk nanobubbles (see picture) are two types of nanoscopic gaseous domain that occur in interfacial physics. The common and disparate features of both bubble types are described, and their possible stabilising mechanisms and potential applications are examined.

    2. The Morphology and Stability of Nanoscopic Gas States at Water/Solid Interfaces (pages 2188–2195)

      Dr. Lijuan Zhang, Dr. Chunlei Wang, Prof. Dr. Renzhong Tai, Prof. Dr. Jun Hu and Prof. Dr. Haiping Fang

      Version of Record online: 28 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201100742

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      Forever blowing (nano)bubbles! Gas states observed at the nanometer scale include nanobubbles, micropancakes, multiple gas layers, and their coexistence (see picture). Molecular dynamic simulations showed that nanoscale gas bubbles may have a high inner density, which could be one reason why nanobubbles are stable at water/solid interfaces.

  12. Articles

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    1. Diffusive Shielding Stabilizes Bulk Nanobubble Clusters (pages 2197–2204)

      Joost H. Weijs, Dr. James R. T. Seddon and Prof. Dr. Detlef Lohse

      Version of Record online: 2 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201100807

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      Small, but tough: Bulk nanobubble clusters can be stable under specific conditions. MD simulations (see picture) of binary mixtures of simple (Lennard-Jones) fluids are used to show this.

    2. Effect of Surface Hydrophobicity on the Formation and Stability of Oxygen Nanobubbles (pages 2205–2212)

      Prof. Gang Pan and Dr. Bo Yang

      Version of Record online: 24 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201100714

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      The formation mechanism of a nanoscale gas state is studied on modified inorganic clay surfaces (see picture). The results suggest that a nanoscale gas state can be formed on both hydrophobic and hydrophilic particle surfaces, but that the stability of the surface nanoscale gas state can vary greatly depending on the hydrophobicity of the solid surfaces.

    3. Temperature Dependence of Surface Nanobubbles (pages 2213–2217)

      Robin P. Berkelaar, Dr. James R. T. Seddon, Prof. Harold J. W. Zandvliet and Prof. Detlef Lohse

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201100808

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      Some like it hot: The temperature dependence of nanobubbles is investigated experimentally using atomic force microscopy. By scanning the same area of the surface at different temperatures, it is possible to track geometrical changes of individual nanobubbles as the temperature is decreased (see picture for the distribution at 45 °C). This underlines the stability of surface nanobubbles.

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      Preview: ChemPhysChem 9/2012 (page 2219)

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201290040

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