ChemPhysChem

Cover image for Vol. 15 Issue 6

Special Issue: Hybrid/Organic Photovoltaics

April 14, 2014

Volume 15, Issue 6

Pages 985–1221

  1. Cover Pictures

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Editorial
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Cover Picture: Altering the Self-organization of Dyes on Titania with Dyeing Solvents to Tune the Charge-transfer Dynamics of Sensitized Solar Cells (ChemPhysChem 6/2014) (page 985)

      Dr. Yinglin Wang, Lin Yang, Jing Zhang, Dr. Renzhi Li, Dr. Min Zhang and Prof. Peng Wang

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201490026

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      The cover picture shows metal-free organic dyes anchored on the surface of titania and the photoinitiated multichannel charge transfer processes on the titania/dye/electrolyte interfaces, which underlie the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells, as described on p. 1037 by R. Li, M. Zhang, P. Wang et al.

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      Inside Cover: Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole) and Metal-Free Organic Dyes (ChemPhysChem 6/2014) (page 986)

      Jinbao Zhang, Dr. Leif Häggman, Prof. Mohamed Jouini, Adel Jarboui, Dr. Gerrit Boschloo, Dr. Nick Vlachopoulos and Prof. Anders Hagfeldt

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201490027

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      D35 dye deposited on TiO2 is used for in situ electro-assisted photo-polymerization of EDOP. The as-obtained polymer PEDOP and the D35-dye-sensitized TiO2 photoanode suppress charge recombination and give a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with high efficiency, as described on p. 1043 by A. Hagfeldt et al.

  2. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Editorial
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Editorial: Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Photovoltaics (pages 987–989)

      Dr. Shahzada Ahmad, Dr. Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin and Prof. Juan Bisquert

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201400098

  3. Graphical Abstract

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Editorial
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Articles
    1. Graphical Abstract: ChemPhysChem 6/2014 (pages 991–998)

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201490028

  4. News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Editorial
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Articles
    1. Editors' Selection: ChemPhysChem 6/2014 (page 999)

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201490029

  5. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Editorial
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Articles
    1. Atomic and Electronic Structures of Interfaces in Dye-Sensitized, Nanostructured Solar Cells (pages 1006–1017)

      Dr. Erik M. J. Johansson, Rebecka Lindblad, Prof. Hans Siegbahn, Prof. Anders Hagfeldt and Prof. Håkan Rensmo

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201301074

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      Core of the matter: Key processes in nanostructured dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) occur at material interfaces containing, for example, oxides, dye molecules, and hole conductors (see picture). The implementation of X-ray-based spectroscopic methods for atomic-level understanding of such properties is reviewed. Examples include energy matching, binding configurations, and molecular orbital composition.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Editorial
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Articles
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Solution-Processed Mesoscopic Bi2S3:Polymer Photoactive Layers (pages 1019–1023)

      Andrew J. MacLachlan, Flannan T. F. O'Mahony, Anna L. Sudlow, Prof. Michael S. Hill, Prof. Kieran C. Molloy, Prof. Jenny Nelson and Dr. Saif A. Haque

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201301103

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      Nontoxic hybrid heterojunctions: Bi2S3 mesoscopic structures are solution-processed utilizing the thermal decomposition of a bismuth xanthate precursor. The resulting structures comprised of Bi2S3 nanorods are infiltrated with the semiconducting polymer P3HT, and the ability of these heterojunctions to photogenerate long-lived charges is demonstrated by using transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS) (see image).

    2. PbS Colloidal Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Inorganic–Organic Hybrid Solar Cells with Radial-Directional Charge Transport (pages 1024–1027)

      Sungwoo Kim, Jin Hyuck Heo, Dr. Jun Hong Noh, Prof. Sang-Wook Kim, Prof. Sang Hyuk Im and Prof. Sang Il Seok

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201300825

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      All lined up: One-dimensional TiO2 nanorods provide an aligned architecture and spaces between them that allows denser packing of PbS colloidal quantum dots on their surfaces as well as more effective infiltration of the poly-3-hexylthiophene hole transport materials. Thus, the fill factor is significantly improved in comparison to conventional mesoscopic TiO2 nanoparticle-based solar cells.

    3. A Metallocene Molecular Complex as Visible-Light Absorber for High-Voltage Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Photovoltaic Cells (pages 1028–1032)

      Dr. Ayumi Ishii and Prof. Tsutomu Miyasaka

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201301228

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      Thin solid-state dye-sensitized photovoltaic cells are fabricated by composing organic and inorganic heterojunctions in which cyclopentadiene derivatives (Cp*) coordinated to a metal oxide (typically TiO2) act as visible-light sensitizers. The obtained organic–inorganic hybrid devices can generate open-circuit voltages greater than 1.2 V.

    4. Sterically Hindered Phthalocyanines for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Influence of the Distance between the Aromatic Core and the Anchoring Group (pages 1033–1036)

      Dr. Maria-Eleni Ragoussi, Dr. Jun-Ho Yum, Dr. Aravind Kumar Chandiran, Dr. Mine Ince, Dr. Gema de la Torre, Prof. Michael Grätzel, Prof. Mohammad K. Nazeeruddin and Prof. Tomás Torres

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201301118

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      Bulky for the best: A 5.57 % power-conversion efficiency is reached by a dye-sensitized solar cell constructed with TT58, that is, a new phthalocyanine (Pc) bearing bulky peripheral substituents and a carboxylic anchoring group directly attached to the macrocycle. Moreover, a Pc-sensitized solar-cell record efficiency of 6.49 % is attained with the previously reported TT40 by optimization of the conditions employed in the preparation of the devices.

    5. Altering the Self-organization of Dyes on Titania with Dyeing Solvents to Tune the Charge-transfer Dynamics of Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 1037–1042)

      Dr. Yinglin Wang, Lin Yang, Jing Zhang, Dr. Renzhi Li, Dr. Min Zhang and Prof. Peng Wang

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201301006

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      Microstructure variations in self-organized dye layers on titania are achieved by choosing different dyeing solvents. The changes are correlated with multichannel charge-transfer dynamics on a broad timescale. Proper dye aggregation for dye-sensitized solar cells can restrain interfacial charge-recombination reactions but does not significantly reduce the carrier photogeneration.

    6. Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole) and Metal-Free Organic Dyes (pages 1043–1047)

      Jinbao Zhang, Dr. Leif Häggman, Prof. Mohamed Jouini, Adel Jarboui, Dr. Gerrit Boschloo, Dr. Nick Vlachopoulos and Prof. Anders Hagfeldt

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201301075

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      An efficient combination! Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole) (PEDOP) is used for the first time as the hole-transporting material in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Devices containing PEDOP as the hole conductor and D35 or D21 L6 as metal-free organic sensitizers show a tenfold higher energy conversion efficiency compared to Ru-Z907-based cells.

  7. Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Editorial
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Articles
    1. Correlation between Temperature Activation of Charge-Carrier Generation Efficiency and Hole Mobility in Small-Molecule Donor Materials (pages 1049–1055)

      Dr. Christian Koerner, Moritz Philipp Hein, Prof. Dr. Vaidotas Kažukauskas, Andrius Sakavičius, Vytautas Janonis, Dr. Roland Fitzner, Prof. Dr. Peter Bäuerle, Prof. Dr. Karl Leo and Dr. Moritz Riede 

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201400030

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      Accelerating charge-carrier generation: The dissociation process of bound charge pairs at the donor/acceptor interface in organic solar cells is still under debate. The authors use a set of similar oligothiophene molecules with varying hole mobility to show that the activation energy for free charge generation decreases with higher mobility. The activation energies are determined by temperature-dependent photoinduced absorption spectroscopy measurements.

    2. Sol–Gel Titanium Dioxide Blocking Layers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Electrochemical Characterization (pages 1056–1061)

      Prof. Dr. Ladislav Kavan, Dr. Marketa Zukalova, Ondrej Vik and Prof. Dr. David Havlicek

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201400026

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      Titania buffer layers for potential application in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells are grown on F-doped SnO2 by using the sol–gel dip-coating method. The blocking layers are tested by means of cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy.

    3. Control of Charge Dynamics through a Charge-Separation Interface for All-Solid Perovskite-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 1062–1069)

      Dr. Yuhei Ogomi, Kenji Kukihara, Prof. Dr. Shen Qing, Prof. Dr. Taro Toyoda, Prof. Dr. Kenji Yoshino, Prof. Dr. Shyam Pandey, Dr. Hisayo Momose and Prof. Dr. Shuzi Hayase

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201301153

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      Dye cell, dye! Carrier dynamics of perovskite sensitized solar cells with and without Y2O3 layer are reported.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Substrate-Oriented Nanorod Scaffolds in Polymer–Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells (pages 1070–1075)

      Yuta Ogawa, Dr. Matthew S. White, Dr. Lina Sun, Dr. Markus C. Scharber, Prof. Dr. Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci and Prof. Dr. Tsukasa Yoshida

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201301104

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      Can inorganic nanorod scaffolds be used to improve the performance of polymer–fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells? This concept has been studied for nearly 10 years, around the world, with inconclusive results. Dozens of cells reported in the literature that use ZnO scaffolds to enhance electron transport are compared with current results and a general trend is observed.

    5. Status of Dye Solar Cell Technology as a Guideline for Further Research (pages 1076–1087)

      Dr. Andreas Hinsch, Welmoed Veurman, Henning Brandt, Katrine Flarup Jensen and Dr. Simone Mastroianni 

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201301083

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      In situ cell concept: A review of the state of the art of dye solar cells (DSCs) evidences a broadening range of new and fundamental topics, such as novel organic dyes and perovskites. An in situ cell-manufacturing concept (see picture) that can be applied to mesoscopic-based solar cells in general is proposed. Recent results from studies on large-area, glass-frit-sealed DSC modules are reported.

    6. Mechanisms of Electron Transport and Recombination in ZnO Nanostructures for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 1088–1097)

      Dr. Alberto G. Vega-Poot, Dr. Manuel Macías-Montero, Jesus Idígoras, Dr. Ana Borrás, Dr. Angel Barranco, Prof. Agustín R. Gonzalez-Elipe, Dr. Francisco I. Lizama-Tzec, Prof. Gerko Oskam and Prof. Juan A. Anta

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201301068

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      Two very different behaviors of the electron-transport properties are found in nanostructured ZnO-based photoanodes. Texturized samples show a voltage-independent transport time, whereas films produced from nanocrystalline powders exhibit a voltage-dependent signal, consistent with trap-limited electron diffusion.

    7. Evaluation of Limiting Factors Affecting Photovoltaic Performance of Low-Temperature-Processed TiO2 Films in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 1098–1105)

      Taek-Yong Lee, Hui-Seon Kim and Prof. Dr. Nam-Gyu Park

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201301043

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      That′s why: The limited photovoltaic performance for the low-temperature-processed TiO2 films (LT200) is due to shorter diffusion length, associated with shorter electron life time, together with a shallow and narrow density of states compared to high-temperature-processed TiO2 films (HT550).

    8. Efficient Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Fluorescent Au-Encapsulated C-Dots (pages 1106–1115)

      Remya Narayanan, Dr. Melepurath Deepa, Dr. Avanish Kumar Srivastava and Prof. Sonnada Math Shivaprasad

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201300958

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      Covering all possibilities: Au@C-dots function as plasmonic electron conduits and also undergo photo-induced charge separation in FRET-enabled high-performance ZnO based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    9. An Integrated Experimental and Theoretical Approach to the Spectroscopy of Organic-Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Heterointerfaces: Disentangling the Effects of Aggregation, Solvation, and Surface Protonation (pages 1116–1125)

      Gabriele Marotta, Dr. Maria Grazia Lobello, Dr. Chiara Anselmi, Dr. Gabriella Barozzino Consiglio, Dr. Massimo Calamante, Dr. Alessandro Mordini, Dr. Mariachiara Pastore and Dr. Filippo De Angelis

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201300923

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      Red- versus blueshift: The variation in optical properties of a prototypical organic D5 dye are investigated in solution and when adsorbed onto TiO2. By varying the sensitization conditions, the TiO2 protonation, and the presence of the solvent, all possible factors responsible for the spectral shifts occurring upon TiO2 sensitization are examined. Dye aggregation and solvent/TiO2 protonation are found to induce comparable shifts in opposite directions.

    10. Interface Stability of a TiO2/3-Methoxypropionitrile-Based Electrolyte: First Evidence for Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation and Implications (pages 1126–1137)

      Miguel Flasque, Dr. Albert Nguyen Van Nhien, Dr. Jolanta Swiatowska, Dr. Antoine Seyeux, Dr. Carine Davoisne and Dr. Frédéric Sauvage

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201300904

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      Degrading? An in-depth study into the stability of a benchmark 3-methoxypropionitrile (MPN)-based electrolyte with TiO2 in dye-sensitized solar cells is presented (see picture). TiO2 plays a significant role in electrolyte degradation and formation of a solid electrolyte interphase. The outcome of this finding is discussed in relation to literature observations and stresses the difficulties of reaching long-term stability at 85 °C with MPN.

    11. Linker Rectifiers for Covalent Attachment of Transition-Metal Catalysts to Metal-Oxide Surfaces (pages 1138–1147)

      Wendu Ding, Dr. Christian F. A. Negre, Dr. Julio L. Palma, Dr. Alec C. Durrell, Dr. Laura J. Allen, Dr. Karin J. Young, Rebecca L. Milot, Prof. Charles A. Schmuttenmaer, Prof. Gary W. Brudvig, Prof. Robert H. Crabtree and Prof. Victor S. Batista

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201400063

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      Linker rectifiers induce directionality of interfacial electron transfer suitable for multi-electron reactions at electrode surfaces. The linkers have a terpyridyl group that can covalently bind Mn as in a well-known water oxidation catalyst and an acetylacetonate group that allows attachment to TiO2 surfaces. The appropriate choice of the sense of the amide linkage suppresses back-electron transfer by shifting the transport channel away from the Fermi level.

    12. Perovskite Solar Cells Based on Nanocolumnar Plasma-Deposited ZnO Thin Films (pages 1148–1153)

      F. Javier Ramos, Dr. Maria C. López-Santos, Dr. Elena Guillén, Dr. Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin, Prof. Michael Grätzel, Prof. Agustin R. Gonzalez-Elipe and Dr. Shahzada Ahmad

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201301215

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      ZnO can work as an electron conduit in the fabrication of perovskite-based solid-state solar cells. Nanocolumnar ZnO thin films synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition are effective candidates for large-area deposition.

    13. High Extinction Coefficient Ru-Sensitizers that Promote Hole Transfer on Nanocrystalline TiO2 (pages 1154–1163)

      Dr. Maria Abrahamsson, Joachim H. J. Hedberg, Dr. Hans-Christian Becker, Dr. Aaron Staniszewski, Dr. Wayne H. Pearson, Dr. William B. Heuer and Dr. Gerald J. Meyer

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201301193

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      An anchor to pass on holes: Unusually high extinction coefficients for a series of RuII complexes are reported, which also promote hole transfer when anchored to nanocrystalline TiO2.

    14. Hematite Photoanodes Modified with an FeIII Water Oxidation Catalyst (pages 1164–1174)

      Nicola Dalle Carbonare, Dr. Vito Cristino, Dr. Serena Berardi, Dr. Stefano Carli, Dr. Roberto Argazzi, Dr. Stefano Caramori, Dr. Laura Meda, Dr. Alessandra Tacca and Prof. Carlo Alberto Bignozzi

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201301143

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      Rust on Rust: hematite photoelectrodes modified with FeIII amorphous water oxidation catalysts obtained by surface ionic layer adsorption and reaction display a considerable enhancement of the photoanodic performance due to hole trapping in reactive states exposed to the electrolyte, allowing for a more successful competition between charge transfer and recombination.

    15. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Reduced Graphene Oxide as the Counter Electrode Prepared by a Green Photothermal Reduction Process (pages 1175–1181)

      Dr. Min-Hsin Yeh, Dr. Lu-Yin Lin, Dr. Ling-Yu Chang, Yow-An Leu, Wan-Yu Cheng, Prof. Jiang-Jen Lin and Prof. Kuo-Chuan Ho

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201301128

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      Put your green coat on: Graphene oxide (GO) prepared by a modified Hummers method from graphite powder is converted to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using a low-temperature photothermal reduction process. This procedure is particularly useful for fabricating all-flexible dye-sensitized solar cells with rGO as the counter electrode.

    16. Investigation of Dye Regeneration Kinetics in Sensitized Solar Cells by Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (pages 1182–1189)

      Bingyan Zhang, Xiaobao Xu, Xiaofan Zhang, Dekang Huang, Shaohui Li, Yibo Zhang, Fang Zhan, Mingzhang Deng, Yahui He, Prof. Wei Chen, Prof. Yan Shen and Prof. Mingkui Wang

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201301076

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      Watching regeneration: Dye-regeneration and charge recombination at the dye-sensitized nanocrystal/electrolyte heterojunction in dye-sensitized solar cells are investigated by scanning electrochemical microscopy. A theoretical model is applied to interpret the current response at the tip under short-circuit conditions providing important information on factors that govern the dynamics of dye-regeneration.

    17. Quantum Conversion Enhancement with TiOx Compact Layers for ITO-Plastic-Film-Based Low-Temperature-Processed Dye-Sensitized Photoelectrodes (pages 1190–1193)

      Saori Morita, Masashi Ikegami, Tzu-Chien Wei and Prof. Tsutomu Miyasaka

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201301061

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      Powering-up: 3.5 μm-thick titania films sensitized with the indoline dye D205 yield a power conversion efficiency of 5.2 %, and an internal quantum efficiency of 100 %.

    18. Carbon-Double-Bond-Free Printed Solar Cells from TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3/CuSCN/Au: Structural Control and Photoaging Effects (pages 1194–1200)

      Prof. Seigo Ito, Soichiro Tanaka, Henri Vahlman, Hitoshi Nishino, Kyohei Manabe and Prof. Peter Lund

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201301047

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      It′s all hot air! Solar cells are fabricated from Pb perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) and CuSCN. The thickness of the CH3NH3PbI3 layer is controlled by a hot air flow during spin coating (see figure). Although the best conversion efficiency (4.86 %) is obtained with a thin CH3NH3PbI3 layer, a thick CH3NH3PbI3 layer is better for light-exposure stability.

    19. Dependence of the Efficiency Improvement of Black-Dye-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells on Alkyl Chain Length of Quaternary Ammonium Cations in Electrolyte Solutions (pages 1201–1206)

      Dr. Hironobu Ozawa, Yu Okuyama and Prof. Dr. Hironori Arakawa

      Article first published online: 31 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201301025

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      Length matters: Dependence of the suppression of electron leakage on the alkyl chain length of the quaternary ammonium cation is investigated. 12.0 % conversion efficiency is achieved in a dye-sensitized solar cell fabricated with Black dye and D131 using the tetraheptylammonium cation (THA+).

    20. Geometrical Isomerism of RuII Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Sensitizers and Effects on Photophysical Properties and Device Performances (pages 1207–1215)

      Fa-Chun Hu, Sheng-Wei Wang, Prof. Yun Chi, Dr. Neil Robertson, Dr. Tracy Hewat, Yue Hu, Dr. Shih-Hung Liu, Prof. Pi-Tai Chou, Po-Fan Yang and Prof. Hao-Wu Lin

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201300974

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      Efficacious symmetry: The photophysical, electrochemical, and spectroelectrochemical behavior of two pairs of isomeric thiocyanate-free ruthenium sensitizers are investigated by density functional theory. Device characterization shows higher conversion efficiencies for the symmetrical trans-isomers.

    21. Reducing Mass-Transport Limitations in Cobalt-Electrolyte-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Photoanode Modification (pages 1216–1221)

      Dr. Thi Thu Trang Pham, Teck Ming Koh, Dr. Kazuteru Nonomura, Prof. Yeng Ming Lam, Prof. Nripan Mathews and Prof. Subodh Mhaisalkar

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201301056

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      Sub-micrometer pores are incorporated in the mesoporous TiO2 film of a dye-sensitized solar cell to create a network of bimodal pore sizes. The large pores assist the diffusion of bulky Co(dtb)2+/3+ ions in the cobalt electrolyte, reduce the diffusion resistance, and improve the photocurrent at high light intensity.

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