Cover image for ChemPhysChem

Special Issue: Electrochemistry

February 17, 2003

Volume 4, Issue 2

Pages 113–222

    1. You have free access to this content
      Editorial: Frontiers of Electrochemistry (page 115)

      Christian Amatore

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.200390019

    2. The Characterisation of Supported Platinum Nanoparticles on Carbon Used for Enantioselective Hydrogenation: A Combined Electrochemical–STM Approach (pages 123–130)

      Gary A. Attard, Ahmad Ahmadi, David J. Jenkins, Omar A. Hazzazi, Peter B. Wells, Ken G. Griffin, Peter Johnston and Jennifer E. Gillies

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.200390021

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      Mass production of chiral materials lies at the heart of new developments in surface catalysis and electrocatalysis. The action of surface-adsorbed chiral modifiers, such as the alkaloids cinchonine and cinchonidine, in facilitating enantioselectivity in heterogeneous catalysis (see graphic) is investigated using a combination of electrochemical and scanning probe methods. The surface chirality of corner kink sites is suggested as being crucial for chirality recognition at supported catalyst nanoparticles.

    3. Metal Nanowire Arrays by Electrodeposition (pages 131–138)

      Erich C. Walter, Michael P. Zach, Frédéric Favier, Benjamin J. Murray, Koji Inazu, John C. Hemminger and Reginald M. Penner

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.200390022

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      Techniques mesh to form a wire array: Methods for the electrodeposition of metal nanowire arrays are described. Metal nanowires are obtained when the electrodeposition of either a metal oxide or a metal occurs selectively at the step-edge defects present on a HOPG electrode. The resulting wires are formed in parallel arrays of 100–1000 wires, reflecting the organization of step edges on the HOPG surface. These nanowire arrays may be lifted off the HOPG surface by embedding them in a cyanoacrylate film, which thereby facilitates the incorporation of metal nanowire arrays into devices such as the hydrogen gas sensor shown.

    4. In Situ Observation of the Surface Processes Involved in Dissolution from the Cleavage Surface of Calcite in Aqueous Solution Using Combined Scanning Electrochemical–Atomic Force Microscopy (SECM-AFM) (pages 139–146)

      Claire E. Jones, Patrick R. Unwin and Julie V. Macpherson

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.200390023

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      Going, going, … the initial stages of proton-assisted dissolution of the calcite single crystal (10equation image4) cleavage plane shown has been identified by means of a combined scanning electrochemical–atomic force microscope (SECM-AFM). Dissolution is effected by the local electrogeneration of protons from the oxidation of water at the platinum-coated AFM probe.

    5. Dynamics of Full Fusion During Vesicular Exocytotic Events: Release of Adrenaline by Chromaffin Cells (pages 147–154)

      Christian Amatore, Stéphane Arbault, Imelda Bonifas, Yann Bouret, Marie Erard and Manon Guille

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.200390024

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      Finding the messenger. Neurotransmitters, such as catecholamines, are enclosed into vesicles stored inside the emitting neuron (see picture) to control, among other processes, adrenaline fluxes. Although a basic picture of neurotransmitter release is known, electrochemical measurements can quantify the dynamics of release and deliver precise kinetic information on these vital biochemical events.

    6. A Microscopic, Continous, Optical Monitor for Interstitial Electrolytes and Glucose (pages 155–161)

      Koji Tohda and Miklós Gratzl

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.200390025

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      As sweet—and colorful—as sugar. An in vitro blood glucose monitor needs to be unobtrusively small, able to send signals without interference, able to run on biological energy sources, and accurate. The ”sliver sensor” shown here changes color depending on its surrounding glucose level and has attracted the interest of space agencies as a remote monitor for astronaut's health; here on the ground this emerging technology may lighten a burden for sufferers of diabetes.

    7. Electrochemical Approaches for Chemical and Biological Analysis on Mars (pages 162–168)

      Samuel P. Kounaves

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.200390026

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      The field of Mars: A new arena for electrochemistry. Electrochemical methods to monitor the temporal changes in gases or simple soluble species offer an indirect detection of biological activity, and analysis of meltwater reveals the Martian paleoclimate. However, any probe must be small and light, consume little power, and be radiation-resistant; a formidable technical challenge. The polymer membrane based ion-sensitive electrode shown here can meet these difficulties.

    8. Voltammetric Exploration and Applications of Ultrasonic Cavitation (pages 169–178)

      Craig E. Banks and Richard G. Compton

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.200390027

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      Sound strengthens stifled signals. Insonation of electrodes offers new possibilities in electroanalysis (see graphic) and electrosynthesis as a result of the hugely increased rates of mass transport and in situ electrode activation arising from cavitational action. At the same time, fast scan voltammetry can provide new insights into the nature of interfacial cavitation and bubble dynamics.

    9. Regular Irregularity in the Transfer of Anionic Surfactant across the Liquid/Liquid Interface (pages 179–185)

      Takashi Kakiuchi, Naoya Nishi, Takuya Kasahara and Minako Chiba

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.200390028

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      Electrochemical instability of the liquid/liquid interface has been demonstrated in regular irregularity of cyclic voltammograms and chronoamperometry transients (as shown in the graphic) in the presence of the potential-dependent adsorption and interfacial transfer of surfactant ions. The instability zone exists as a window in the potential range around the half-wave potential of the ion transfer.

    10. The Use of Optical Fiber Bundles Combined with Electrochemistry for Chemical Imaging (pages 186–192)

      Sabine Szunerits and David R. Walt

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.200390029

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      I spy, with my flylike eye. The advantages of microelectrode arrays can be combined with the imaging properties offered by optical fiber bundles, providing the user with two levels of control and selectivity. Ring optelectrodes (see picture) ultimately may provide a means to specifically stimulate a target cell in a population of nontarget cells by first detecting an optical signal from the target cell and then locally delivering an electric current to the cell to destroy it.

    11. Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Formic Acid at an Ordered Intermetallic PtBi Surface (pages 193–199)

      Emerilis Casado-Rivera, Zoltán Gál, A. C. D. Angelo, Cora Lind, Francis J. DiSalvo and Héctor D. Abruña

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.200390030

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      Burns better with mixed metals. The electrocatalytic oxidation of formic acid, of great interest for fuel cell applications, proceeds more robustly at a PtBi ordered intermetallic electrode surface compared to that at a polycrystalline platinum electrode surface. The PtBi electrode exhibits superior oxidation onset potential and current density (the cyclic voltammograms shown compare a Pt with a PtBi electrode) and does not appear to be poisoned when exposed to a CO-saturated solution even after 1 h.

    12. Mechanistic Aspects of On-Line Electrochemical Tagging of Free L-Cysteine Residues during Electrospray Ionisation for Mass Spectrometry in Protein Analysis (pages 200–206)

      Christophe Roussel, Tatiana C. Rohner, Henrik Jensen and Hubert H. Girault

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.200390031

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      A new way to play tag. The mechanistic and kinetic details behind an electrochemically induced tagging of L-cysteine residues in peptides and proteins have been unravelled using cyclic voltammetry. The selectivity of the tagging process was confirmed using ESI-MS, which showed that a protein not containing any L-cysteine residues does not react with benzoquinone dissolved in the medium. The graphic shows the tagging taking place on-line, immediately prior to MS detection.

    13. Etched Electrochemical Detection for Electrophoresis in Nanometer Inner Diameter Capillaries (pages 207–211)

      Lori A. Woods and Andrew G. Ewing

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.200390032

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      Zeptomolar (10−2M) analyte concentrations can be monitored using capillary electrophoresis in nanometer inner diameter capillaries coupled to an improved method for electrochemical detection. The new etching method for electrochemical detection reduces dead volume in the detector to achieve peak efficiencies as high as 100 000 theoretical plates and detection limits as low as 340 zmol for catecholamines (see picture). The application of this technique for future analysis of the contents of single mammalian cells is also outlined.

    14. Finite-Element Analysis of Magnetic Field Driven Transport at Inlaid Platinum Microdisk Electrodes (pages 212–214)

      Dipesh Mehta and Henry S. White

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.200390033

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      Magnets moving molecules. Magnetic field driven molecular transport, with applications in electrochemical microfluidic transport and molecule trapping, holds a number of interesting technical opportunities. A key limitation in their development however lies in the difficulty in analyzing the flow and transport, due to the complexity of the governing equations of fluid mechanics, electrochemical molecular transport, and magnetic forces. A comparison of simulated and experimental results is presented within (see graph), and agreement is good especially for larger (>100 μm) electrodes.

    15. Preview: ChemPhysChem 2/2003 (page 222)

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.200390036