Acute Lung Injury and Pulmonary Vascular Permeability: Use of Transgenic Models
Published Online: 1 APR 2011
Copyright © 2011 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved.
How to Cite
Parker, J. C. 2011. Acute Lung Injury and Pulmonary Vascular Permeability: Use of Transgenic Models. Comprehensive Physiology. 1:835–882.
- Published Online: 1 APR 2011
Acute lung injury is a general term that describes injurious conditions that can range from mild interstitial edema to massive inflammatory tissue destruction. This review will cover theoretical considerations and quantitative and semi-quantitative methods for assessing edema formation and increased vascular permeability during lung injury. Pulmonary edema can be quantitated directly using gravimetric methods, or indirectly by descriptive microscopy, quantitative morphometric microscopy, altered lung mechanics, high-resolution computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, or x-ray films. Lung vascular permeability to fluid can be evaluated by measuring the filtration coefficient (Kf) and permeability to solutes evaluated from their blood to lung clearances. Albumin clearances can then be used to calculate specific permeability-surface area products (PS) and reflection coefficients (σ). These methods as applied to a wide variety of transgenic mice subjected to acute lung injury by hyperoxic exposure, sepsis, ischemia-reperfusion, acid aspiration, oleic acid infusion, repeated lung lavage, and bleomycin are reviewed. These commonly used animal models simulate features of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, and the preparation of genetically modified mice and their use for defining specific pathways in these disease models are outlined. Although the initiating events differ widely, many of the subsequent inflammatory processes causing lung injury and increased vascular permeability are surprisingly similar for many etiologies. © 2011 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 1:835-882, 2011.