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Hypertension: Physiology and Pathophysiology

  1. John E. Hall1,
  2. Joey P. Granger1,
  3. Jussara M. do Carmo1,
  4. Alexandre A. da Silva1,
  5. John Dubinion1,
  6. Eric George1,
  7. Shereen Hamza1,
  8. Joshua Speed1,
  9. Michael E. Hall2

Published Online: 1 OCT 2012

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.c110058

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Hall, J. E., Granger, J. P., do Carmo, J. M., da Silva, A. A., Dubinion, J., George, E., Hamza, S., Speed, J. and Hall, M. E. 2012. Hypertension: Physiology and Pathophysiology. Comprehensive Physiology. 2:2393–2442.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi

  2. 2

    Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 OCT 2012


Despite major advances in understanding the pathophysiology of hypertension and availability of effective and safe antihypertensive drugs, suboptimal blood pressure (BP) control is still the most important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and is globally responsible for more than 7 million deaths annually. Short-term and long-term BP regulation involve the integrated actions of multiple cardiovascular, renal, neural, endocrine, and local tissue control systems. Clinical and experimental observations strongly support a central role for the kidneys in the long-term regulation of BP, and abnormal renal-pressure natriuresis is present in all forms of chronic hypertension. Impaired renal-pressure natriuresis and chronic hypertension can be caused by intrarenal or extrarenal factors that reduce glomerular filtration rate or increase renal tubular reabsorption of salt and water; these factors include excessive activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems, increased formation of reactive oxygen species, endothelin, and inflammatory cytokines, or decreased synthesis of nitric oxide and various natriuretic factors. In human primary (essential) hypertension, the precise causes of impaired renal function are not completely understood, although excessive weight gain and dietary factors appear to play a major role since hypertension is rare in nonobese hunter-gathers living in nonindustrialized societies. Recent advances in genetics offer opportunities to discover gene-environment interactions that may also contribute to hypertension, although success thus far has been limited mainly to identification of rare monogenic forms of hypertension. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:2393-2442, 2012.