Standard Article

The Influence of Exercise on Cognitive Abilities

  1. Fernando Gomez-Pinilla1,
  2. Charles Hillman2

Published Online: 1 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.c110063

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Gomez-Pinilla, F. and Hillman, C. 2013. The Influence of Exercise on Cognitive Abilities. Comprehensive Physiology. 3:403–428.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, UCLA and Department of Neurosurgery, UCLA Brain Injury Research Center, Los Angeles, California

  2. 2

    Departments of Kinesiology & Community Health, Psychology, and Internal Medicine, The Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2013

Abstract

Scientific evidence based on neuroimaging approaches over the last decade has demonstrated the efficacy of physical activity improving cognitive health across the human lifespan. Aerobic fitness spares age-related loss of brain tissue during aging, and enhances functional aspects of higher order regions involved in the control of cognition. More active or higher fit individuals are capable of allocating greater attentional resources toward the environment and are able to process information more quickly. These data are suggestive that aerobic fitness enhances cognitive strategies enabling to respond effectively to an imposed challenge with a better yield in task performance. In turn, animal studies have shown that exercise has a benevolent action on health and plasticity of the nervous system. New evidence indicates that exercise exerts its effects on cognition by affecting molecular events related to the management of energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity. An important instigator in the molecular machinery stimulated by exercise is brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which acts at the interface of metabolism and plasticity. Recent studies show that exercise collaborates with other aspects of lifestyle to influence the molecular substrates of cognition. In particular, select dietary factors share similar mechanisms with exercise, and in some cases they can complement the action of exercise. Therefore, exercise and dietary management appear as a noninvasive and effective strategy to counteract neurological and cognitive disorders. © 2013 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 3:403-428, 2013.