Standard Article

Characterization and Regulation of Mechanical Loading-Induced Compensatory Muscle Hypertrophy

  1. Gregory R. Adams1,
  2. Marcas M. Bamman2,3

Published Online: 1 OCT 2012

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.c110066

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Adams, G. R. and Bamman, M. M. 2012. Characterization and Regulation of Mechanical Loading-Induced Compensatory Muscle Hypertrophy. Comprehensive Physiology. 2:2829–2870.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California

  2. 2

    Department of Cell, Developmental, and Integrative Biology and the UAB Center for Exercise Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama

  3. 3

    Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Birmingham VA Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 OCT 2012


In mammalian systems, skeletal muscle exists in a dynamic state that monitors and regulates the physiological investment in muscle size to meet the current level of functional demand. This review attempts to consolidate current knowledge concerning development of the compensatory hypertrophy that occurs in response to a sustained increase in the mechanical loading of skeletal muscle. Topics covered include: defining and measuring compensatory hypertrophy, experimental models, loading stimulus parameters, acute responses to increased loading, hyperplasia, myofiber-type adaptations, the involvement of satellite cells, mRNA translational control, mechanotransduction, and endocrinology. The authors conclude with their impressions of current knowledge gaps in the field that are ripe for future study. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:2829-2870, 2012.