Standard Article

Organization of Invertebrate Motor Systems

Handbook of Physiology, The Nervous System, Cellular Biology of Neurons

  1. Donald Kennedy1,
  2. William J. Davis2

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp010127

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Kennedy, D. and Davis, W. J. 2011. Organization of Invertebrate Motor Systems. Comprehensive Physiology. 1023–1087.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California

  2. 2

    Thimann Laboratories, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Properties of Muscle
    • 1.1
      Anatomic Organization
    • 1.2
      Contraction Speed
    • 1.3
      Strength and Extent of Contraction
    • 1.4
      Thresholds for Excitation-Contraction Coupling
    • 1.5
      Correlations with Innervation
    • 1.6
      Dependence of Tension on Recent History
  • 2
    Motor Neurons and the Motor Unit
    • 2.1
      Motor Neuron Morphology
    • 2.2
      Correlations Between Motor Neuron Morphology and Function
    • 2.3
      Neuromuscular Transmission
    • 2.4
      Excitation-Contraction Coupling
    • 2.5
      Peripheral Motor Unit Organization
    • 2.6
      Matching of Central and Peripheral Properties
    • 2.7
      Ontogeny and Regeneration
  • 3
    Reflex Organization
    • 3.1
      Proprioceptive Reflexes
    • 3.2
      Exteroreceptive Reflexes
    • 3.3
      Righting Reflexes
    • 3.4
      Optomotor Reflexes
    • 3.5
      Control of Reflex Excitability
  • 4
    Central Organization of Motor Systems
    • 4.1
      Structure of Motor Programs
    • 4.2
      Storage of Motor Programs
    • 4.3
      Release of Motor Programs by Command Elements
    • 4.4
      Central Versus Peripheral Control of Motor Output
    • 4.5
      Development of Pattern-Generating Networks
    • 4.6
      Complex Behavioral Phenomena
  • 5
    Conclusion