Standard Article

Motor Prostheses

Handbook of Physiology, The Nervous System, Motor Control

  1. J. Thomas Mortimer

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp010205

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Mortimer, J. T. 2011. Motor Prostheses. Comprehensive Physiology. 155–187.

Author Information

  1. Applied Neural Control Laboratory, Biomedical Engineering Department, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    History
  • 2
    Perspective
  • 3
    Electrochemical Aspects of Stimulation
    • 3.1
      Metal-Tissue Interface Without Applied Field
    • 3.2
      System for Electrical Excitation
    • 3.3
      Relationship Between Electrode Potential and Charge Density
    • 3.4
      Regulated Voltage vs. Regulated Current
    • 3.5
      Monophasic Stimulation
    • 3.6
      Biphasic Stimulation
    • 3.7
      Summary
  • 4
    Tissue Damage
    • 4.1
      Electrode Materials
    • 4.2
      Brain (Surface Electrodes)
    • 4.3
      Nerve (Cuff Electrode)
    • 4.4
      Muscle (Coiled Wire Electrode)
    • 4.5
      Summary
  • 5
    Nerve Excitation
    • 5.1
      Membrane Response to Applied Electrical Field
    • 5.2
      Excitation of Myelinated Nerve
    • 5.3
      Threshold Relationship Between Nerve and Muscle
    • 5.4
      Effects of Electrode Configuration on Threshold and Excitation Site
    • 5.5
      Neural Fatigue
    • 5.6
      Summary
  • 6
    Electrical Activation of Skeletal Muscle
    • 6.1
      Brief Review of Muscle Physiology
    • 6.2
      Electrical Excitation of Normal Muscle
    • 6.3
      Muscle Alterations Induced by Electrical Activation
    • 6.4
      Force Modulation
    • 6.5
      Summary
  • 7
    Clinical Applications
    • 7.1
      Paralyzed Muscle
    • 7.2
      Scoliosis
    • 7.3
      Summary
  • 8
    Summary