Standard Article

Limitations of Somatosensory Feedback in Control of Posture and Movement

Handbook of Physiology, The Nervous System, Motor Control

  1. Peter M. H. Rack

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp010207

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Rack, P. M. H. 2011. Limitations of Somatosensory Feedback in Control of Posture and Movement. Comprehensive Physiology. 229–256.

Author Information

  1. Department of Physiology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Some Properties of Servomechanisms
    • 1.1
      Loop Gain
    • 1.2
      Frequency Transfer Function
    • 1.3
      Properties of Different Loads
    • 1.4
      Vector Representation of Frequency Transfer Function
    • 1.5
      Vector Representation of a Delay
    • 1.6
      Combination of Different Vectors
    • 1.7
      A Velocity-Sensitive Transducer
    • 1.8
      A Low-Pass Filter
    • 1.9
      Stability
    • 1.10
      Nonlinear Systems
  • 2
    Response of Limbs to Sinusoidal Movements
    • 2.1
      Effects of Limb Mass
    • 2.2
      Resistance of Muscles to Movement
    • 2.3
      The Two Components of Muscle Force
    • 2.4
      Muscles as Low-Pass Filters
    • 2.5
      Timing of Reflex Force
    • 2.6
      Timing of Muscle Spindle Afferent Activity
    • 2.7
      Reflex Delay
    • 2.8
      Summary
  • 3
    Negative Stiffness and Spontaneous Oscillations
    • 3.1
      Factors Affecting Stability of Stretch Reflexes
    • 3.2
      Nature of the External Load
    • 3.3
      Level of Muscle Activation
    • 3.4
      Resistance to Movements of Different Amplitudes
    • 3.5
      Comparing the Stretch Reflex With a Man-Made Control System
    • 3.6
      Stability of a Man-Made System
    • 3.7
      Stability and Gain in the Stretch Reflex
    • 3.8
      Summary
  • 4
    Reflex Responses or Precomputed Activity?
    • 4.1
      Response to a Sudden Disturbance
    • 4.2
      Tuning of the Neuromuscular System
    • 4.3
      Triggered Responses to a Disturbance
    • 4.4
      Summary
  • 5
    Servo Assistance of Voluntary Movements
  • 6
    Precomputed Movements
    • 6.1
      Summary
  • 7
    Feedback and Learning
  • 8
    Forward-Looking Control Systems
  • 9
    Conclusions