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Control of Locomotion in Bipeds, Tetrapods, and Fish

Handbook of Physiology, The Nervous System, Motor Control

  1. Sten Grillner

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp010226

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Grillner, S. 2011. Control of Locomotion in Bipeds, Tetrapods, and Fish. Comprehensive Physiology. 1179–1236.

Author Information

  1. Department of Physiology III, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Biomechanical and Electromyographical Information
    • 1.1
      Single Limb During Locomotion
    • 1.2
      Interlimb Coordination
    • 1.3
      Treadmill Versus Overground Locomotion
    • 1.4
      Trunk Movements During Locomotion
    • 1.5
      Pathological Gaits
    • 1.6
      Summary
  • 2
    Neural Generation of “Basic Locomotor Synergy”
    • 2.1
      Central Versus Peripheral
    • 2.2
      Parts of CNS of Primary Importance for Neural Control of Basic Locomotor Synergy
    • 2.3
      Spinal Centers for Locomotion—Behavioral Results
    • 2.4
      Reflex Control of Basic Locomotor Synergy
    • 2.5
      Activity in Certain Spinal, Cerebellar, and Brain Stem Neurons and in Certain Reflex Pathways During Locomotion
    • 2.6
      Cerebellum and Locomotion
    • 2.7
      Initiation of Locomotion—Brain Stem Circuitry
    • 2.8
      Central Organization of Spinal Pattern Generation
    • 2.9
      Possible Rhythm-Generating Mechanisms and Models—Facts and Fiction
    • 2.10
      Developmental Aspects
    • 2.11
      Summary
  • 3
    Adapting Basic Locomotor Synergy to Animal's Needs
    • 3.1
      Changing Speed
    • 3.2
      Goal-Directed Locomotion—Turning and Walking Along Curvatures
    • 3.3
      Modifications of “Locomotor Posture”
    • 3.4
      Positioning of Limb in Each Step
    • 3.5
      Reflex Adaptation of Step
    • 3.6
      Summary
  • 4
    Concluding Remarks