Standard Article

Human Manual Control

Handbook of Physiology, The Nervous System, Motor Control

  1. E. C. Poulton

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp010230

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Poulton, E. C. 2011. Human Manual Control. Comprehensive Physiology. 1337–1389.

Author Information

  1. Medical Research Council Applied Psychology Unit, Cambridge, England

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    A Simple Model for Voluntary Control
    • 1.1
      Working Memory and Internal Rehearsal
    • 1.2
      Coding of Words in Working Memory
    • 1.3
      Computer of Limited Capacity
    • 1.4
      Single-Channel Input Selector
    • 1.5
      Long-Term Memory and Automation of Skill
    • 1.6
      Summary
  • 2
    Bias from Transfer
    • 2.1
      Central Tendency Bias
    • 2.2
      Asymmetric Transfer Bias
    • 2.3
      Avoiding Transfer Bias
    • 2.4
      Summary
  • 3
    Measures of Error
    • 3.1
      Relationships Between Measures of Error
    • 3.2
      Measures of Error in Tracking
    • 3.3
      Summary
  • 4
    Preprogramming and Error Correction
    • 4.1
      Quick Ballistic Movements
    • 4.2
      Craik's Ratio Rule
    • 4.3
      Preprogrammed Movements With Error Correction
  • 5
    Nonvisual Memory for Single Movements
    • 5.1
      Weber's Law for Accuracy of Movements
    • 5.2
      Contraction Bias
    • 5.3
      Uncontrolled Differences in Sizes of Movements
    • 5.4
      Forgetting and Spatial Reference Points
    • 5.5
      Interpolated Motor Activity Between Criterion Movement and Reproduced Movement
    • 5.6
      Location Better Remembered Than Distance
    • 5.7
      Active and Passive Preselected and Constrained Movements
    • 5.8
      Visual Cues Take Priority Over Nonvisual Cues
    • 5.9
      Summary
  • 6
    Reaction Time for Correcting a Limb Movement
    • 6.1
      Deliberate and Automatic Corrections
    • 6.2
      Kinesthetic Reaction Time
    • 6.3
      Visual Correction of Quick Movements
    • 6.4
      Reaction Time for a Correction in Tracking Steps
    • 6.5
      Advance Correction of Direction
    • 6.6
      Corrected Anticipatory Response
    • 6.7
      Difficulties of Interpretation
    • 6.8
      Additional Artifacts in Measuring Reaction Times to Steps
    • 6.9
      Summary
  • 7
    Preparation and Time Sharing
    • 7.1
      Reaction Times for Multiple Choices
    • 7.2
      Grouped Responses to Simultaneous Stimuli
    • 7.3
      Psychological Refractory Period
    • 7.4
      Holding Strategy in Tracking Steps
    • 7.5
      Apparent Elimination of Psychological Refractory Period by Simultaneous Strategy
    • 7.6
      Probe Reaction Time and Psychological Refractory Period
    • 7.7
      Reaction Time to a Probe Presented During a Movement
    • 7.8
      Interference Between Movements of Two Limbs
    • 7.9
      Time Sharing Between Two Tasks
    • 7.10
      Tracking in Two Dimensions
    • 7.11
      Optimum Combinations of Two Unrelated Tasks
    • 7.12
      Summary
  • 8
    Prediction and Preprogramming Replace Error Correction in Complex Skills
    • 8.1
      Prediction of Speed in Pursuit Tracking
    • 8.2
      Preprogramming of Response Frequency in Pursuit Tracking
    • 8.3
      Models for Prediction
    • 8.4
      Prediction and Error Correction in Tracking With Pursuit and Compensatory Displays
    • 8.5
      Preprogramming With Control Systems of High Order
    • 8.6
      Preprogramming and Error Correction in Complex Skills
    • 8.7
      Summary
  • 9
    Tracking by Eye
  • 10
    Overview