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Mechanisms of Transmitter Action in the Vertebrate Central Nervous System

Handbook of Physiology, The Nervous System, Intrinsic Regulatory Systems of the Brain

  1. George R. Siggins,
  2. Donna L. Gruol

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp010401

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Siggins, G. R. and Gruol, D. L. 2011. Mechanisms of Transmitter Action in the Vertebrate Central Nervous System. Comprehensive Physiology. 1–114.

Author Information

  1. Division of Preclinical Neuroscience and Endocrinology, Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation, La Jolla, California

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Historical Considerations
  • 2
    Identification of Specific Messengers for Neuronal Pathways
    • 2.1
      Criteria for Neurotransmitters
  • 3
    Mechanisms of Neuronal Excitability and Synaptic Transmission
    • 3.1
      Membrane Ion Channels
    • 3.2
      Conventional Synaptic Mechanisms
    • 3.3
      Unconventional Messenger Mechanisms
    • 3.4
      Neuromodulator Action
    • 3.5
      Neuromediator or Second-Messenger Actions
  • 4
    Experimental Strategies
    • 4.1
      Measures of Cell Excitability as Indices of Transmitter Action
    • 4.2
      Methods of Drug Application
    • 4.3
      Comparison of In Vivo and In Vitro Preparations
    • 4.4
      Anatomical Description of Selected Brain Regions
  • 5
    Effects of Neuromessengers and Comparison with Endogenous Transmitters in Selected Brain Regions
    • 5.1
      Amino Acids
    • 5.2
      Monoamines
    • 5.3
      Nucleosides and Nucleotides
    • 5.4
      Peptides
    • 5.5
      Other Peptides: Special Problems of Peptide Electrophysiology
    • 5.6
      Peptides for Future Study
  • 6
    Factors Accounting for Variability in Response to Transmitters
    • 6.1
      Pathway Stimulation
    • 6.2
      Exogenous Application of Messengers
  • 7
    Integration: Synaptic Interactions and Coexistence of Neuromessengers
    • 7.1
      Spatial Domain
    • 7.2
      Temporal Domain
    • 7.3
      Mechanistic Domain
    • 7.4
      Cotransmitters
  • 8
    Conclusions: Speculations on Need for Diversity of Messages