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Catecholaminergic Brain Stem Regulatory Systems

Handbook of Physiology, The Nervous System, Intrinsic Regulatory Systems of the Brain

  1. Anders Björklund1,
  2. Olle Lindvall2

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp010403

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Björklund, A. and Lindvall, O. 2011. Catecholaminergic Brain Stem Regulatory Systems. Comprehensive Physiology. 155–235.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Histology, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden

  2. 2

    Department of Neurology, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Catecholaminergic Cell Groups
    • 1.1
      Noradrenergic Cell Groups
    • 1.2
      Dopaminergic Cell Groups
  • 2
    Phylogenetic Perspective
    • 2.1
      Comparative Aspects of Brain Stem Catecholaminergic Cell Groups
    • 2.2
      Catecholaminergic Projections to Forebrain
  • 3
    Catecholaminergic Fiber Tracts
    • 3.1
      Dorsal Tegmental Bundle
    • 3.2
      Central Tegmental Tract
    • 3.3
      Periventricular System
    • 3.4
      Nigrostriatal Pathway
    • 3.5
      Medial Forebrain Bundle
  • 4
    Dopaminergic Projection Systems
    • 4.1
      Mesotelencephalic System
    • 4.2
      Diencephalic Projections of Mesencephalic Dopaminergic Cell Groups
    • 4.3
      Descending Projections From Mesencephalic Dopaminergic Cell Groups
    • 4.4
      Projections of Diencephalic Cell Groups
  • 5
    Mesotelencephalic Dopaminergic Neurons and Organization of Striatal and Limbic Forebrain Circuitry
    • 5.1
      General Organizational Features
    • 5.2
      Transmitter Characteristics
  • 6
    Functional Aspects of Mesotelencephalic Dopamine System
    • 6.1
      Dopamine-Deficiency Syndrome
    • 6.2
      Simplified Scheme for Dopaminergic Regulation of Striatal Output Functions
    • 6.3
      Dopaminergic Modulation of Neurotransmission in Substantia Nigra Through Dendrites of Nigral Neurons
  • 7
    Noradrenergic Projection Systems
    • 7.1
      Locus Coeruleus System
    • 7.2
      Lateral Tegmental and Dorsal Medullary Systems
  • 8
    Noradrenergic Systems Viewed as Components of Brain Stem Reticular Formation
  • 9
    Functional Aspects of Brain Stem Noradrenergic Systems
    • 9.1
      Neuromodulatory Actions
    • 9.2
      Arousal and Attention
    • 9.3
      Descending Effects on Locomotion
    • 9.4
      Blood Flow, Stress, and Epileptic Seizures
  • 10
    Regenerative Responses and Functional Recovery After Brain Injury
    • 10.1
      Regeneration After Axotomy
    • 10.2
      Collateral Sprouting After Deafferentation
    • 10.3
      Compensatory Hyperactivity
    • 10.4
      Reinnervation and Recovery of Function by Grafted Catecholaminergic Neurons
  • 11
    Summary
    • 11.1
      Catecholamine Neurons Can Operate in Both Synaptic and Neurohumoral Manners
    • 11.2
      Catecholamines Function at Both Axonal and Dendritic Terminals
    • 11.3
      Catecholamine Release Depends on Neuronal Activity and Local Transmitter Interactions