Standard Article

The Cardiac Na+-Ca2+ Exchanger

Handbook of Physiology, The Cardiovascular System, The Heart

  1. Larry V. Hryshko

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp020110

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Hryshko, L. V. 2011. The Cardiac Na+-Ca2+ Exchanger. Comprehensive Physiology. 388–419.

Author Information

  1. Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, St. Boniface General Hospital Research Centre, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    A Brief Historical Perspective and Prelude to the Review
  • 2
    Physiological Role of The Cardiac Na+-Ca2+ Exchanger
  • 3
    Reverse Na+-Ca2+ Exchange as A Trigger for SR Ca2+ Release
  • 4
    Digitalis Effects
  • 5
    Immunolocalization
  • 6
    Transport Properties
    • 6.1
      Stoichiometry
    • 6.2
      Transport Mechanism
    • 6.3
      Turnover Rates and Exchanger Density
    • 6.4
      Ion Selectivity
    • 6.5
      Temperature Dependence
  • 7
    Molecular Biology of the Na+-Ca2+ Exchanger
    • 7.1
      The Prototypical Canine Cardiac Na+-Ca2+ Exchanger
    • 7.2
      The Exchanger Superfamily
    • 7.3
      Topology of the Na+-Ca2+ Exchanger
    • 7.4
      The Calx-α and Calx-β Repeats
    • 7.5
      Alternative Splicing of Na+-Ca2+ Exchangers
  • 8
    Regulation of Na+-Ca2+ Exchange
    • 8.1
      Ionic Regulation
    • 8.2
      Structure–Function Relationships of Ionic Regulation
    • 8.3
      Regulation by Phosphorylation
    • 8.4
      Regulation by PIP2
    • 8.5
      Regulation by pH
    • 8.6
      Cytoskeletal Interactions
  • 9
    Pharmacology of Na+-Ca2+ Exchange
    • 9.1
      The Exchanger Inhibitory Peptide, XIP
    • 9.2
      Other Peptide Inhibitors
    • 9.3
      KB-R7943
    • 9.4
      Other Inhibitors
  • 10
    Studies in Transgenic Mice
  • 11
    Adenoviral Transfection of Na+-Ca2+ Exchange Proteins
  • 12
    Antisense Oligonucleotides
  • 13
    Frequency-Dependent Behavior of Na+-Ca2+ Exchange
  • 14
    Developmental Changes
  • 15
    Species Differences
  • 16
    Pathophysiological Alterations in Na+-Ca2+ Exchange
    • 16.1
      Contribution of Na+-Ca2+ Exchange to Cardiac Injury
    • 16.2
      Alterations in Na+-Ca2+ Exchange Levels
  • 17
    Summary