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Normal and Abnormal Conduction in the Heart

Handbook of Physiology, The Cardiovascular System, The Heart

  1. André G. Kléber1,
  2. Michiel J. Janse2,
  3. Vladimir G. Fast2

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp020112

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Kléber, A. G., Janse, M. J. and Fast, V. G. 2011. Normal and Abnormal Conduction in the Heart. Comprehensive Physiology. 455–530.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Physiology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

  2. 2

    Laboratory for Experimental Cardiology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011


The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Basic Mechanisms of Cardiac Impulse Propagation
    • 1.1
      The Continuous Cable
    • 1.2
      Two-Dimensional Propagation and Wavefront Curvature
    • 1.3
      Structural Determinants of Anisotropic and Discontinuous Conduction
    • 1.4
      Propagation in Discontinuous Structures
    • 1.5
      Discontinuous Propagation in a Cell Chain and a Cell Strand
    • 1.6
      Anisotropic Propagation
    • 1.7
      The Electrical Resistance of the Extracellular Space
    • 1.8
      The Bidomain Behavior of Cardiac Tissue
  • 2
    The Activation of the Whole Heart—from the Sinus Node to the Ventricles
    • 2.1
      The Sinus Node—Spread of Excitation from the Sinus Node to the Atrium
  • 3
    Disturbances of Impulse Conduction and Conduction Block
    • 3.1
      The Safety Factor of Propagation
    • 3.2
      Effects of Changes in Resting Membrane Potential and Inhibition of Na+ Channels on Conduction Velocity
    • 3.3
      Conduction Slowing and Block: The Role of Ca++ Inward Current
    • 3.4
      Conduction Slowing and Discontinuous Conduction
    • 3.5
      Mechanisms of Unidirectional Block
  • 4
    Circulating Excitation, Re-Entry, and Spiral Waves
    • 4.1
      Anatomic Re-entry
    • 4.2
      Functional Re-entry—the Leading Circle Concept
    • 4.3
      Spiral Wave Re-entry
    • 4.4
      Transition from Functional to Anatomic Re-entry. Anchoring of Spiral Waves