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Modulation of Electrical Properties by Ions, Hormones, and Drugs

Handbook of Physiology, The Cardiovascular System, The Heart

  1. Masayasu Hiraoka

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp020116

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Hiraoka, M. 2011. Modulation of Electrical Properties by Ions, Hormones, and Drugs. Comprehensive Physiology. 595–653.

Author Information

  1. Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Effects of Electrolytes
    • 1.1
      Potassium Ions
    • 1.2
      Sodium Ions
    • 1.3
      Calcium and Other Divalent Cations
    • 1.4
      Chloride Ions
  • 2
    Effects of pH and Physical Factors
    • 2.1
      pH
    • 2.2
      Temperature
    • 2.3
      Stretch and Osmotic Pressure
  • 3
    Effects of Neurohormones and Their Receptor Stimulations
    • 3.1
      Adrenoceptor Agonists and Adrenergic Receptor Stimulation
    • 3.2
      Cholinergic Agonists and Cholinergic Receptor Stimulation
  • 4
    Effects of Circulatory Hormones and Autocrine/Paracrine Substances
    • 4.1
      Thyroid Hormones and Thyroid States
    • 4.2
      Insulin and Diabetes Mellitus
    • 4.3
      Effects of Adenosine and Adenine Nucleotides Through Purinergic Receptor Stimulation
    • 4.4
      Histamine and Histamine H2 Receptor Stimulation
    • 4.5
      Angiotensin II and Angiotensin Receptor Stimulation
    • 4.6
      Arginine Vasopressin and Vasopressinergic Receptor Stimulation
    • 4.7
      Endothelins
    • 4.8
      Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
    • 4.9
      Nitric Oxide
  • 5
    Effects of Drugs
    • 5.1
      Digitalis Glucosides
    • 5.2
      Potassium Channel Openers