Standard Article

Electrical Heterogeneity in the Heart: Physiological, Pharmacological and Clinical Implications

Handbook of Physiology, The Cardiovascular System, The Heart

  1. Charles Antzelevitch,
  2. Robert Dumaine

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp020117

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Antzelevitch, C. and Dumaine, R. 2011. Electrical Heterogeneity in the Heart: Physiological, Pharmacological and Clinical Implications. Comprehensive Physiology. 654–692.

Author Information

  1. Masonic Medical Research Laboratory, Utica, New York

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Action Potential and Ionic Distinctions
    • 1.1
      Methodological Considerations in the Assessment of Electrical Heterogeneity
  • 2
    Pharmacological Distinctions
    • 2.1
      Epicardium versus Endocardium
    • 2.2
      M-cells versus Epicardium and Endocardium
    • 2.3
      M-Cells versus Purkinje Cells
  • 3
    Molecular Distinctions
    • 3.1
      Potassium Channels
    • 3.2
      Sodium Channels
    • 3.3
      Gap Junctions
    • 3.4
      Chloride Conductances
    • 3.5
      Calcium Channels
    • 3.6
      Pumps and Exchangers
  • 4
    Simulation of Action Potential Heterogeneity
  • 5
    Developmental Aspects
  • 6
    Physiological and Clinical Implications
    • 6.1
      Transmural Distribution of Ito and the J Wave
    • 6.2
      Phase 2 Re-entry as a Mechanism of Extrasystolic Activity
    • 6.3
      Phase 2 Re-entry as a Trigger for VT/VF: The Brugada Syndrome
    • 6.4
      Early Repolarization Syndrome
    • 6.5
      Ischemia
    • 6.6
      Role of Transmural Heterogeneity in Inscription of the Electrocardiographic T Wave
    • 6.7
      Role of Transmural Heterogeneity in Inscription of the U Wave
    • 6.8
      Role of Transmural Heterogeneity in the Long QT Syndrome
    • 6.9
      Torsade de Pointes
    • 6.10
      Pharmacological Therapy for LQTS: Reducing Transmural Dispersion of Repolarization
  • 7
    Summary