Standard Article

A Modern View of Heart Failure: Practical Applications of Cardiovascular Physiology

Handbook of Physiology, The Cardiovascular System, The Heart

  1. Arnold M. Katz

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp020121

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Katz, A. M. 2011. A Modern View of Heart Failure: Practical Applications of Cardiovascular Physiology. Comprehensive Physiology. 786–804.

Author Information

  1. Cardiology Division, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Paradigmatic Shifts
  • 2
    Definition of Heart Failure
  • 3
    The Paradigm of Organ Physiology: The Failing Heart as a Defective Pump
    • 3.1
      Backward and Forward Failure
    • 3.2
      Systolic and Diastolic Dysfunction
    • 3.3
      Right and Left Heart Failure
    • 3.4
      The Neurohumoral Response in Heart Failure
    • 3.5
      Crossover Between Functional and Proliferative Signaling
    • 3.6
      Coupling Between the Failing Heart and the Circulation: Pressure–Volume Loops
    • 3.7
      Architectural Changes in the Failing Heart
  • 4
    The Paradigm of Biochemistry and Biophysics: The Failing Heart as a Weakly Contracting, Incompletely Relaxing Muscle
    • 4.1
      Inotropic and Lusitropic Abnormalities
    • 4.2
      Energy-Starvation
    • 4.3
      Molecular Alterations and Architectural Changes
  • 5
    The Paradigm of Gene Expression: The Failing Heart as an Abnormal Molecular Structure
    • 5.1
      Adaptive and Maladaptive Hypertrophy
    • 5.2
      Cardiac Myocyte Phenotypes
    • 5.3
      Shape Changes in the Cells of the Overloaded Heart
    • 5.4
      Myocardial Cell Death
  • 6
    Summary and Conclusions