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Circulation to Skeletal Muscle

Handbook of Physiology, The Cardiovascular System, Peripheral Circulation and Organ Blood Flow

  1. John T. Shepherd

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp020311

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Shepherd, J. T. 2011. Circulation to Skeletal Muscle. Comprehensive Physiology. 319–370.

Author Information

  1. Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Mayo Clinic and Foundation and Mayo Medical School, Rochester, Minnesota

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Basal Vascular Resistance and Autoregulation
  • 2
    Role of Myogenic Mechanism in Reactive Hyperemia
  • 3
    Role of Myogenic Mechanism in Exercise Hyperemia
  • 4
    Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
  • 5
    Muscle Blood Flow During Exercise
    • 5.1
      Oxygen Lack
    • 5.2
      Lactic Acid, pH, and CO2
    • 5.3
      Potassium
    • 5.4
      Inorganic Phosphate
    • 5.5
      Osmolarity
    • 5.6
      Prostaglandins
    • 5.7
      Adenosine and Adenine Nucleotides
    • 5.8
      Intrinsic Neurons and Exercise Dilatation
    • 5.9
      General Conclusions
  • 6
    Mechanical Hindrance to Blood Flow in Skeletal Muscle
  • 7
    Reactive Hyperemia
    • 7.1
      Are Exercise and Reactive Hyperemia Due to the Same Mechanism(s)?
  • 8
    Propagated Vasodilatation
  • 9
    Sympathetic Vasomotor Outflow
  • 10
    Noradrenergic Innervation of Resistance Vessels in Muscles
    • 10.1
      Neuroeffector Junction
    • 10.2
      α-Adrenergic Activation
  • 11
    Factors that Modulate Transmitter Output From Sympathetic Nerve Endings
    • 11.1
      Metabolic Action
    • 11.2
      Neurohumoral Action
  • 12
    Reflex Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Resistance Vessels by Sympathetic Noradrenergic Nerves
    • 12.1
      Carotid and Aortic Baroreflex
    • 12.2
      Carotid and Aortic Chemoreflex
    • 12.3
      Reflexes From the Heart and Lungs
    • 12.4
      Diving Reflex
    • 12.5
      Reflex From Receptors in Skeletal Muscles
  • 13
    Rhythmic Exercise
  • 14
    Isometric Exercise
  • 15
    Influence of Sympathetic Noradrenergic Fibers on the Blood Flow to Active Muscles
  • 16
    β2-Adrenergic Activation
  • 17
    Cholinergic Vasodilator Nerves
    • 17.1
      Role of Cholinergic Nerves in the Carotid Baroreflex
    • 17.2
      Cholinergic Vasodilatation in Humans
  • 18
    Histaminergic Vasodilatation
    • 18.1
      Role of Histamine in the Vasodilatation Resulting From Reflex Inhibition of Sympathetic Outflow
  • 19
    Conclusions