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Cardiovascular Adjustments to Diving in Mammals and Birds

Handbook of Physiology, The Cardiovascular System, Peripheral Circulation and Organ Blood Flow

  1. Arnoldus Schytte Blix1,
  2. Björn Folkow2

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp020325

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Blix, A. S. and Folkow, B. 2011. Cardiovascular Adjustments to Diving in Mammals and Birds. Comprehensive Physiology. 917–945.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Arctic Biology and Institute of Medical Biology, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway

  2. 2

    Department of Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Historical Landmarks
  • 2
    The Basic Problem for Diving Animals
  • 3
    Decreased Sensitivity to Asphyxia
  • 4
    Oxygen Stores and Principles of Their Utilization
  • 5
    Cardiovascular Adjustments During and After Diving
    • 5.1
      General Aspects
    • 5.2
      Cardiac Output
    • 5.3
      Regional Circulation During Diving and on Emersion
  • 6
    Morphological Specializations in Vascular Beds of Diving Animals
    • 6.1
      Arteries
    • 6.2
      Shunts
    • 6.3
      Veins
  • 7
    Metabolic Consequences
  • 8
    Central Integration of Cardiovascular Responses
    • 8.1
      Medullary Reflex Mechanisms
    • 8.2
      Suprabulbar Influences
    • 8.3
      Other Reflex Influences
  • 9
    Diving Responses in Humans and Some Clinical Applications
    • 9.1
      Responses in Humans
    • 9.2
      Clinical Applications