Standard Article

The Microcirculation in Inflammation

Handbook of Physiology, The Cardiovascular System, Microcirculation

  1. Klaus Ley

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp020409

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Ley, K. 2011. The Microcirculation in Inflammation. Comprehensive Physiology. 387–448.

Author Information

  1. La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Historical Background 1
  • 2
    Anatomy of the Microcirculation: Arterioles, Capillaries, and Venules
  • 3
    Special Circulations
  • 4
    Types and Ontogeny of White Blood Cells 2
    • 4.1
      Myeloid differentiation
    • 4.2
      Neutrophils
    • 4.3
      Monocytes
    • 4.4
      Tissue-resident macrophages and dendritic cells
    • 4.5
      Mast cells
    • 4.6
      Eosinophils and basophils
    • 4.7
      Lymphocytes
  • 5
    Endothelial Cells in Inflammation
    • 5.1
      Endothelial heterogeneity
    • 5.2
      Endothelial surface layer
    • 5.3
      Endothelial activation
    • 5.4
      Endothelial permeability in inflammation
  • 6
    Integrated View: The Microcirculation in Inflammation
    • 6.1
      Vasomotor responses and consequences for perfusion, blood flow, shear stress
    • 6.2
      Classes of chemoattractants
    • 6.3
      Inflammatory chemokines and their receptors
    • 6.4
      Locally acting cytokines
    • 6.5
      Systemic cytokines and chemokines
    • 6.6
      Complement activation and its regulation
    • 6.7
      Eicosanoids
    • 6.8
      Other inflammatory mediators
  • 7
    Leukocyte Adhesion Cascade – General Paradigm and Exceptions
  • 8
    Leukocyte–Endothelial Interactions 3
    • 8.1
      Leukocyte integrins
    • 8.2
      Integrin-associated molecules
    • 8.3
      Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like adhesion receptors
    • 8.4
      L-selectin
    • 8.5
      PSGL-1 (CD162)
  • 9
    Endothelial Adhesion Molecules
    • 9.1
      P-selectin
    • 9.2
      E-selectin
    • 9.3
      Endothelial immunoglobulin-like adhesion molecules
    • 9.4
      Other endothelial adhesion molecules
    • 9.5
      Signaling through adhesion molecules
    • 9.6
      Soluble adhesion molecules
  • 10
    Chemokine-Mediated Arrest of Rolling Leukocytes
    • 10.1
      Arrest chemokines 4
    • 10.2
      Differential activation of integrins
    • 10.3
      Intracellular signaling mediating arrest
  • 11
    Transmigration
    • 11.1
      Chemotactic transmigration 5
    • 11.2
      Transmigration driven by endothelial cell activation
    • 11.3
      Paracellular route
    • 11.4
      Transcellular route
    • 11.5
      Migration through the endothelial basement membrane and pericyte sheath
    • 11.6
      Transmigration of monocytes, T cells, eosinophils
  • 12
    Migration in the Interstitial Space
  • 13
    Microvascular Damage Secondary to Inflammation
  • 14
    Oxygen- and Nitrogen-Derived Radicals
    • 14.1
      Antimicrobial activities
    • 14.2
      Anti- and pro-inflammatory effects of NO
    • 14.3
      Tissue damage by superoxide and other oxygen-derived radicals
  • 15
    Regulation of Inflammatory Responses
    • 15.1
      Toll-like receptors
    • 15.2
      Other pattern recognition receptors
    • 15.3
      Regulation of inflammation by macrophages and dendritic cells
    • 15.4
      Regulation of Inflammation by T cells
    • 15.5
      Cytokines regulating inflammation
  • 16
    Interaction Between Inflammation and Platelets 6
    • 16.1
      Platelet chemokines
    • 16.2
      Platelet chemokine receptors
    • 16.3
      Other platelet G-protein-coupled receptors
    • 16.4
      Platelet cytokines
    • 16.5
      Small molecules secreted by platelets
    • 16.6
      Platelet-leukocyte interactions
    • 16.7
      Platelet–endothelial interactions
    • 16.8
      Enhanced leukocyte adhesion by platelets
  • 17
    Interaction Between Inflammation and Coagulation
    • 17.1
      Tissue factor
    • 17.2
      Proteases of the coagulation cascade
    • 17.3
      Fibrinolysis
    • 17.4
      Coagulation- and fibrinolysis-induced effects on inflammation
    • 17.5
      Inflammation-induced effects on coagulation and fibrinolysis
  • 18
    Resolution of Inflammation
  • 19
    Future Work
    • 19.1
      Organ-specific inflammatory processes
    • 19.2
      Homeostatic Regulation
    • 19.3
      Interactions Between the Innate and Adaptive Immune System
    • 19.4
      Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Strategies
  • 20
    Acknowledgments