Standard Article

The Renal Microcirculation

Handbook of Physiology, The Cardiovascular System, Microcirculation

  1. L Gabriel Navar1,
  2. William J Arendshorst2,
  3. Thomas L Pallone3,
  4. Edward W Inscho4,
  5. John D Imig5,
  6. P Darwin Bell6

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp020413

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Navar, L. G., Arendshorst, W. J., Pallone, T. L., Inscho, E. W., Imig, J. D. and Bell, P. D. 2011. The Renal Microcirculation. Comprehensive Physiology. 550–683.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Physiology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA

  2. 2

    Department of Cell and Molecular Physiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA

  3. 3

    Department of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA

  4. 4

    Department of Physiology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA, USA

  5. 5

    Department of Physiology and Cardiovascular Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, WI, USA

  6. 6

    Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Introduction
  • 2
    Structural-Functional Aspects Unique to the Renal Microcirculation
    • 2.1
      Microvasculature of the renal cortex
    • 2.2
      Glomerular and peritubular capillary networks
    • 2.3
      Renal interstitium and lymphatics
    • 2.4
      Microvasculature of the renal medulla
    • 2.5
      Juxtaglomerular complex and macula densa
    • 2.6
      Innervation of the renal vascular structures
  • 3
    Fluid and Solute Transcapillary Exchange in Renal Microcirculation
    • 3.1
      Glomerular ultrafiltration
    • 3.2
      Restricted permeability to macromolecules in glomerular capillaries
    • 3.3
      Peritubular capillaries and uptake of tubular reabsorbate
    • 3.4
      Regulation of the filtration coefficient
    • 3.5
      Transport of solutes and water in medullary microvasculature
  • 4
    Vascular Activating Mechanisms and Intrinsic Control of Renal Microcirculation
    • 4.1
      Membrane activating mechanisms
    • 4.2
      Mechanosensitive responses and renal autoregulation
    • 4.3
      TGF mechanism
  • 5
    Endothelial Interactions with Renal Vasculature
    • 5.1
      Endothelial-derived vasoactive factors
    • 5.2
      Nitric oxide
    • 5.3
      Endothelin and renal hemodynamics
    • 5.4
      Endothelin effects on renal microcirculation
    • 5.5
      Heme oxygenase and CO
    • 5.6
      Reactive oxygen species
  • 6
    Renin-Angiotensin System
    • 6.1
      Intrarenal formation of Ang II
    • 6.2
      Intrarenal angiotensin receptors
    • 6.3
      Actions of Ang II on renal microvasculature and renal hemodynamics
    • 6.4
      Differential activation and signal transduction mechanisms on afferent and efferent arterioles
    • 6.5
      Responses to ACE inhibitors and Ang II receptor blockers
    • 6.6
      Actions of intrarenally formed Ang II and renal interstitial Ang II
    • 6.7
      Modulation of TGF responsiveness by Ang II
    • 6.8
      Synergistic interactions between renal vascular and tubular effects of Ang II
  • 7
    Arachidonic Acid Related Paracrine Factors: Cyclooxygenase, Lipoxygenase, Cytochrome P450 Pathways
    • 7.1
      Enzymes that metabolize eicosanoids
    • 7.2
      Renal microcirculatory actions of COX metabolites
    • 7.3
      Renal microcirculatory actions of CYP metabolites
    • 7.4
      Renal microcirculatory actions of LOX metabolites
    • 7.5
      Renal microvascular interactions between hormonal and paracrine factors and eicosanoids
    • 7.6
      Role of eicosanoids in renal autoregulation
    • 7.7
      Conclusions
  • 8
    Purinergic Factors Regulating the Renal Microcirculation
    • 8.1
      Overview of purinoceptors
    • 8.2
      Purinoceptors and their expression in the kidney
    • 8.3
      Purinoceptors and renal hemodynamics
    • 8.4
      Purinoceptors and the renal microcirculation: single vessel studies
    • 8.5
      Purinoceptors and renal autoregulation and TGF
  • 9
    Mechanisms Regulating Medullary Microcirculation
    • 9.1
      Introduction
    • 9.2
      Reduction of intramedullary hematocrit
    • 9.3
      The unique requirements of renal medullary perfusion
    • 9.4
      Autoregulation and pressure natriuresis
    • 9.5
      Diuresis and vasopressin
    • 9.6
      Angiotensin and medullary perfusion
    • 9.7
      Nitric oxide
    • 9.8
      Reactive oxygen species
    • 9.9
      Carbon monoxide
    • 9.10
      Endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor
    • 9.11
      Arachadonic acid metabolite
    • 9.12
      Kinins
    • 9.13
      Adenosine
    • 9.14
      Endothelins
  • 10
    Neural Factors and Catecholamines
    • 10.1
      Innervation of the renal vascular structures
    • 10.2
      Neural effects on renal hemodynamics and microcirculation
    • 10.3
      Segmental vascular resistance and glomerular hemodynamics
    • 10.4
      Effects of renal nerves on autoregulation
    • 10.5
      Neural interactions with paracrine factors
    • 10.6
      Co-neurotransmitters
    • 10.7
      Afferent renal nerves
  • 11
    Concluding Comments
  • 12
    Acknowledgments