Standard Article

Diffusion and Convection in Intrapulmonary Gas Mixing

Handbook of Physiology, The Respiratory System, Gas Exchange

  1. Johannes Piiper1,
  2. Peter Scheid2

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp030404

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Piiper, J. and Scheid, P. 2011. Diffusion and Convection in Intrapulmonary Gas Mixing. Comprehensive Physiology. 51–69.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Abteilung Physiologie, Max-Planck-Institut für experimentelle Medizin, Göttingen, Federal Republic of Germany

  2. 2

    Institut für Physiologie, Ruhr-Universität, Bochum, Federal Republic of Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Diffusion
    • 1.1
      Diffusion Laws
    • 1.2
      Binary Diffusion
    • 1.3
      Diffusion in Multicomponent Systems
  • 2
    Diffusion, Convection, and Their Interactions
    • 2.1
      Dispersion
    • 2.2
      Attempts to Quantify Dispersion in Upper Airways
    • 2.3
      Dispersion During High-Frequency Oscillation
    • 2.4
      Convective Mixing by Mechanical Action of the Heart
  • 3
    Anatomical Basis for Models of Lung Gas Mixing
    • 3.1
      Regularly Branching Lung Model
    • 3.2
      Irrregularly Branching Lung Model
    • 3.3
      Conclusion
  • 4
    Mathematical Analysis of Lung Gas Mixing
    • 4.1
      Models Considering Diffusive Mixing Alone
    • 4.2
      Models Considering Convection and Diffusion
  • 5
    Experimental Evidence for Stratification in Lungs
    • 5.1
      Effects of Series and Parallel Inhomogeneities
    • 5.2
      Methods and Results
    • 5.3
      Attempts at Quantification
  • 6
    Critical Remarks and Conclusions
    • 6.1
      Physiological Measurements Versus Morphometric Models
    • 6.2
      Dead Space Versus Stratification
    • 6.3
      Effects of Series and Parallel Inhomogeneity
    • 6.4
      Mixing in Overall Pulmonary Gas Transfer