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Mechanisms of Heat Exchange: Biophysics and Physiology

Handbook of Physiology, Environmental Physiology

  1. A. Pharo Gagge1,
  2. Richard R. Gonzalez2

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp040104

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Gagge, A. P. and Gonzalez, R. R. 2011. Mechanisms of Heat Exchange: Biophysics and Physiology. Comprehensive Physiology. 45–84.

Author Information

  1. 1

    John B. Pierce Foundation Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut

  2. 2

    U. S. Army Research Institute, Environmental Medicine, Biophysics and Biomedical Modeling Division, Natick, Massachusetts

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Human Heat Balance Equation
  • 2
    Independent Variables Affecting the Thermal Environment
    • 2.1
      Ambient Temperature
    • 2.2
      Dew Point Temperature and Ambient Vapor Pressure
    • 2.3
      Air and Fluid Movement
    • 2.4
      Mean Radiant Temperature and Effective Radiant Field
    • 2.5
      Clothing Insulation
    • 2.6
      Barometric Pressure
  • 3
    Peripheral Factors to Heat Exchange
    • 3.1
      Mean Skin Temperature
    • 3.2
      Skin Wettedness
    • 3.3
      Body Heat Storage and Rate of Change of Mean Body Temperature
    • 3.4
      Metabolic Energy
  • 4
    Sensible Heat Exchange by Radiation and Convection
    • 4.1
      Operative Temperature
    • 4.2
      Clothing Properties Effective in Sensible Heat Exchange
  • 5
    Radiation Exchange
    • 5.1
      Mean Radiant Temperature and Effective Radiant Field
  • 6
    Convective Heat Exchange
    • 6.1
      Heat Transfer Theory
    • 6.2
      Measurement of the Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient
    • 6.3
      Effect of Altitude (Barometric Pressure) on Convective Heat Loss
  • 7
    Evaporative Heat Exchange
    • 7.1
      Direct Measurement of Evaporative Heat Loss
  • 8
    Psychrometrics of the Human Heat Balance Equation
    • 8.1
      Lewis Relation: Interpretation of Wet-Bulb Temperature and Enthalpy
    • 8.2
      Generalization to Energy Transfer between Humans and the Environment
    • 8.3
      Enthalpy of the Human Environment
    • 8.4
      Enthalpy and the Rational Indices of the Human Environment
  • 9
    Pierce Two-Node Model of Thermoregulation
    • 9.1
      The Passive State
    • 9.2
      The Control System
    • 9.3
      Initial Warm and Cold Signals
    • 9.4
      Control of Skin Blood Flow
    • 9.5
      Control of the Whole-Body Sweating Drive
    • 9.6
      Control of the Skin Shell Properties
    • 9.7
      Control of Shivering
  • 10
    Heat Loss Factors in Warm and Cold Environments: Physiology
    • 10.1
      Heat and Mass Transfer from the Body to the Environment
    • 10.2
      Body Motion
    • 10.3
      Thermal Aspects
    • 10.4
      Thermoregulatory Control Relative to Heat Loss Factors
    • 10.5
      Physiological Responses of Heat Loss by Thermal Radiation and Adaptive Response
  • 11
    Heat Loss in Special Environments
    • 11.1
      Hypobaric Environments
    • 11.2
      Hyperbaric Environments
    • 11.3
      Aquatic Environments
    • 11.4
      Heat Exchange in Spacecraft