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Limitation of Heat Tolerance

Handbook of Physiology, Environmental Physiology

  1. J. R. S. Hales1,
  2. R. W. Hubbard2,
  3. S. L. Gaffin2

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp040115

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Hales, J. R. S., Hubbard, R. W. and Gaffin, S. L. 2011. Limitation of Heat Tolerance. Comprehensive Physiology. 285–355.

Author Information

  1. 1

    School of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of New South Wales, Kensington (Sydney), Australia

  2. 2

    Environmental Pathophysiology Directorate, and Comparative Physiology Division, U. S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Occurrence and Diagnosis of Heatstroke
  • 2
    Principal Systemic Responses to or Effects of Severe Heat Stress
    • 2.1
      Observations on Heatstroke Patients
    • 2.2
      Experimental Observations
    • 2.3
      Hormones
  • 3
    Proposed Systemic Mechanisms Responsible for Heat Tolerance Limitation
    • 3.1
      Breakdown of Thermolytic Mechanisms
    • 3.2
      Critical Body Temperatures
    • 3.3
      Cardiopulmonary Malfunction
    • 3.4
      Conflicts with Cardiovascular Stability
  • 4
    Role of Endotoxins in Heatstroke
    • 4.1
      The Gastrointestinal Tract as a Source of Toxic Agents
    • 4.2
      Leakage of Intestinal Lipopolysaccharide
    • 4.3
      Hypothesis
    • 4.4
      Pathophysiology of Lipopolysaccharide
    • 4.5
      Heatstroke and Lipopolysaccharide
    • 4.6
      Lipopolysaccharide in Sports Medicine
    • 4.7
      Therapeutic Implications
  • 5
    Cellular and Molecular Perspectives of Heat Tolerance
    • 5.1
      Membrane Blebbing
    • 5.2
      Psychrophiles, Mesophiles, and Thermophiles
    • 5.3
      Cellular Heat Death and Membrane Fluidity
    • 5.4
      Local Anesthetics and Membrane Fluidity
    • 5.5
      Leaks, Pumps, and Energy Metabolism
    • 5.6
      Hyperthermia and Measurement of Intracellular Ions
    • 5.7
      Apophysis and Other Mechanisms of Cell Death
    • 5.8
      Temperature and Endocrine Effects
    • 5.9
      Hypokalemia and Heatstroke
    • 5.10
      Hyperthermia, Lactate, and Acid–Base Balance
    • 5.11
      Heat Shock and Protein Synthesis
  • 6
    Factors Modifying Heat Tolerance
    • 6.1
      Exercise
    • 6.2
      Fitness
    • 6.3
      Hypohydration
    • 6.4
      Heat Acclimation
    • 6.5
      Very Young Age and Old Age
    • 6.6
      Drugs Modifying Heat Tolerance
  • 7
    Critical Techniques
    • 7.1
      The Fundamental Experimental Approach
    • 7.2
      Temperature Interpretation
    • 7.3
      Choice of Animal Model
    • 7.4
      Elucidation of Reflexogenic Pathways
    • 7.5
      Measurement of Blood Flow
  • 8
    Conclusion