Standard Article

Human Thermoregulatory Responses to Acute Cold Stress with Special Reference to Water Immersion

Handbook of Physiology, Environmental Physiology

  1. Michael M. Toner,
  2. William D. McArdle

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp040117

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Toner, M. M. and McArdle, W. D. 2011. Human Thermoregulatory Responses to Acute Cold Stress with Special Reference to Water Immersion. Comprehensive Physiology. 379–397.

Author Information

  1. Department of Health and Physical Education, Queens College of the City University of New York, Flushing, New York

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Metabolic Adjustments to the Cold
    • 1.1
      Critical Temperature
    • 1.2
      Thermogenesis Below Critical Temperature
  • 2
    Heat Transfer and Thermal Adjustments to the Cold
    • 2.1
      Skin-to-Water Heat Transfer
    • 2.2
      Core-to-Skin Heat Transfer
    • 2.3
      Core-to-Core Heat Transfer
    • 2.4
      Core-to-Environment Heat Transfer
  • 3
    Thermal Balance in the Cold
    • 3.1
      Thermal Balance by Analysis of Survival Data
    • 3.2
      Thermal Balance Assessed by Thermal Models
    • 3.3
      Stability of Skin and Core Temperatures
    • 3.4
      Still Conditions vs. Voluntary Exertion