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The Skeleton and its Adaptation to Gravity

Handbook of Physiology, Environmental Physiology

  1. Emily R. Morey-Holton1,
  2. Robert T. Whalen1,
  3. Sara B. Arnaud1,
  4. Marjolein C. van der Meulen2

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp040131

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Morey-Holton, E. R., Whalen, R. T., Arnaud, S. B. and van der Meulen, M. C. 2011. The Skeleton and its Adaptation to Gravity. Comprehensive Physiology. 691–719.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Life Science Division, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California

  2. 2

    Rehabilitation Research and Development Center, VA Medical Center, Palo Alto, California

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Evolution and Bone
  • 2
    Skeletal Physiology
    • 2.1
      Bone Cells
    • 2.2
      Skeletal Tissue
  • 3
    Musculoskeletal Mechanics
    • 3.1
      Gravity and Static Equilibrium
    • 3.2
      Activity and Dynamic Equilibrium
    • 3.3
      External Loading History
    • 3.4
      Muscle and Bone Forces
    • 3.5
      Bone Mechanical Properties
    • 3.6
      Biological Scaling
    • 3.7
      Mathematical Models of Adaptation
    • 3.8
      Functional Adaptation to Altered Loading
  • 4
    Calcium Metabolism
    • 4.1
      Total Body Calcium
    • 4.2
      Calcium Kinetics
    • 4.3
      Calcium Balance
    • 4.4
      Distribution of Mineral in the Skeleton
    • 4.5
      Calcium Homeostasis and the Calcium Endocrine System
  • 5
    Bone Cellular and Tissue Adaptation
    • 5.1
      In Vivo Bone Tissue
    • 5.2
      Organ Culture
    • 5.3
      Bone Cell Cultures
  • 6
    Biomineralization
  • 7
    Summary