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Hypoxia, Erythropoietin Gene Expression, and Erythropoiesis

Handbook of Physiology, Environmental Physiology

  1. Peter J. Ratcliffe1,
  2. Kai-Uwe Eckardt2,
  3. Christian Bauer3

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp040249

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Ratcliffe, P. J., Eckardt, K.-U. and Bauer, C. 2011. Hypoxia, Erythropoietin Gene Expression, and Erythropoiesis. Comprehensive Physiology. 1125–1153.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, England

  2. 2

    Physiologisches Institüt der Universität Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany

  3. 3

    Physiologisches Institüt der Universität Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    The Erythropoietin Receptor
  • 2
    Erythropoiesis and Erythroid Differentiation
  • 3
    Modulation of Serum Erythropoietin Levels
    • 3.1
      Assays for Erythropoietin
    • 3.2
      Serum Erythropoietin Levels and Their Dependence on Oxygenation
    • 3.3
      Kinetics and Quantity of Increases in Serum Erythropoietin Levels
    • 3.4
      Disturbances in Oxygen-Dependent Control of Serum Erythropoietin Levels
    • 3.5
      Clearance and Metabolic Fate of Erythropoietin
  • 4
    The Source of Erythropoietin
    • 4.1
      Organs Producing Erythropoietin
    • 4.2
      Relative Contribution of Liver and Kidneys to Erythropoietin Formation
    • 4.3
      Cellular Site of Erythropoietin Formation
  • 5
    Oxygen Sensing in the Control of Erythropoietin Formation
    • 5.1
      Evidence for Intrarenal Oxygen Sensing
    • 5.2
      The Role of Local Oxygenation in Hepatic Erythropoietin Formation
    • 5.3
      The Role of Local Oxygenation for Renal Erythropoietin Formation
    • 5.4
      Mechanism of Oxygen Sensing and Signal Transduction
  • 6
    Control of Erythropoietin Gene Expression
    • 6.1
      Modulation of Erythropoietin mRNA Levels
    • 6.2
      Cis-Acting Sequences that Coordinate Gene Expression
    • 6.3
      Sequence Conservation in Erythropoietin Genes
    • 6.4
      Hypersensitive Sites in Erythropoietin Genes
    • 6.5
      The Promoter of the Erythropoietin Gene
    • 6.6
      Enhancer Elements 3′ to the Erythropoietin Gene
    • 6.7
      Operation of Distant Cis-Acting Elements to Control Tissue Specificity of Gene Expression
    • 6.8
      Cis-Acting Sequences in Erythropoietin mRNA
  • 7
    Relationship to other Adaptive Responses to Hypoxia