Standard Article

The Cardiovascular System at High Altitude

Handbook of Physiology, Environmental Physiology

  1. Mirsaid M. Mirrakhimov,
  2. Robert M. Winslow

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp040253

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Mirrakhimov, M. M. and Winslow, R. M. 2011. The Cardiovascular System at High Altitude. Comprehensive Physiology. 1241–1257.

Author Information

  1. Kyrgyz Institute of Cardiology, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan University of California, San Diego, California

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Normal Cardiac Output
    • 1.1
      Stroke Volume
    • 1.2
      Heart Rate
  • 2
    Cardiac Output at High Altitude
    • 2.1
      Heart Rate at High Altitude
    • 2.2
      Effect of Polycythemia on Cardiac Output
    • 2.3
      Sojourners Exposed to Altitude
  • 3
    Pulmonary Circulation at Altitude
    • 3.1
      Role of Hematocrit in Pulmonary Hypertension
    • 3.2
      Role of Hypoxia in Pulmonary Hypertension
    • 3.3
      Adrenergic Control of Pulmonary Vasculature
    • 3.4
      Pulmonary Artery Morphology
    • 3.5
      Connective Tissue Growth: Hypertrophy
    • 3.6
      Mechanism of Pulmonary Vasoconstriction
  • 4
    Effects of Hypoxia on the Heart
    • 4.1
      Morphology
    • 4.2
      Metabolic Effects
    • 4.3
      Microcirculation
  • 5
    Coronary Circulation
  • 6
    Systemic Circulation
    • 6.1
      Effects of Altitude
    • 6.2
      Atrial Natriuretic Factor
    • 6.3
      Venous Tone
    • 6.4
      Summary of Effects on the Circulatory System
  • 7
    Applied Aspects