Standard Article

Enterohepatic Circulation of Bile Acids

Handbook of Physiology, The Gastrointestinal System, Salivary, Gastric, Pancreatic, and Hepatobiliary Secretion

  1. Alan F. Hofmann

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp060329

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Hofmann, A. F. 2011. Enterohepatic Circulation of Bile Acids. Comprehensive Physiology. 567–596.

Author Information

  1. Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Historical Aspects
  • 2
    General Features of Enterohepatic Circulation in Vertebrates
    • 2.1
      Anatomical Distribution
    • 2.2
      Overall Balance
    • 2.3
      Description Methods
    • 2.4
      Determinants of Composition and Distribution
    • 2.5
      Dynamic Aspects of Enterohepatic Circulation in Humans
    • 2.6
      Bile Acid Concentrations
    • 2.7
      Chemical Constituents
    • 2.8
      Bile Acid Biotransformations
    • 2.9
      Movements of Bile Acids in Enterohepatic Circulation
  • 3
    Application of General Principles in Humans
    • 3.1
      Cholic Acid and Deoxycholic Acid
    • 3.2
      Chenodeoxycholic Acid and Lithocholic Acid
  • 4
    Determinants of Steady-State Biliary Bile Acid Composition in Humans
    • 4.1
      Steroid Moiety
    • 4.2
      Amino Acid Moiety
  • 5
    Methods For Characterizing Enterohepatic Circulation of Bile Acids
    • 5.1
      Bile Acid Pool Size
    • 5.2
      Bile Acid Biosynthesis or Input
    • 5.3
      Measurement of Bile Acid Fluxes
    • 5.4
      Regulation of Enterohepatic Circulation
  • 6
    Perturbations of Enterohepatic Circulation
    • 6.1
      Alterations in Input
    • 6.2
      Alterations in Interorgan Flow
    • 6.3
      Alterations in Transport
    • 6.4
      Alterations in Biotransformation
  • 7
    Epilogue: Comparison of Bile Acids and Conventional Drugs