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Amylin and Related Proteins: Physiology and Pathophysiology

Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, The Endocrine Pancreas and Regulation of Metabolism

  1. Garth J. S. Cooper

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp070210

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Cooper, G. J. S. 2011. Amylin and Related Proteins: Physiology and Pathophysiology. Comprehensive Physiology. 303–396.

Author Information

  1. School of Biological Sciences and Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Protein Chemistry of Amylin
    • 1.1
      Isolation, Structure, Nomenclature, and Evolutionary Relationships
    • 1.2
      Chemical Synthesis
    • 1.3
      Molecular Structure of Soluble Amylin
    • 1.4
      Amylin as the Monomer of Islet Amyloid
  • 2
    Molecular Biology
    • 2.1
      Preproamylin
    • 2.2
      Structure and Chromosomal Location of the Human Amylin Gene
    • 2.3
      A Disease-Associated Mutation in Human Amylin
  • 3
    Biosynthesis and Secretion of Amylin
    • 3.1
      Measurement of Amylin Concentrations
    • 3.2
      Tissue Localization and Content
    • 3.3
      Regulation of Biosynthesis
    • 3.4
      Amylin in Extra-Islet Tissues
    • 3.5
      Circulating Concentrations and Pancreatic Secretion
    • 3.6
      Effects of Secretion Modulators
    • 3.7
      Amylin Secretion in Humans
  • 4
    The Amylin Family: Role in the Regulation of Fuel Metabolism
    • 4.1
      Insulin Resistance In Vivo
    • 4.2
      Actions in Skeletal Muscle
    • 4.3
      Role of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide in Skeletal Muscle Metabolism
    • 4.4
      Actions in the Liver
    • 4.5
      Adipose Tissue
  • 5
    Regulation of Pancreatic Function
    • 5.1
      Endocrine Pancreas
    • 5.2
      Exocrine Pancreas
  • 6
    Regulation of The Gastrointestinal Tract
    • 6.1
      Effects on Gastric Function
    • 6.2
      Intestinal Function
  • 7
    Actions in The Central Nervous System: Modulation of Appetite
  • 8
    Actions in The Cardiovascular System
    • 8.1
      Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide
    • 8.2
      Adrenomedullin
    • 8.3
      Biological Actions of Adrenomedullin in the Cardiovascular System
    • 8.4
      Vascular Actions of Amylin
  • 9
    Renal Function
    • 9.1
      Role of Amylin in the Regulation of Renal Function
    • 9.2
      Adrenomedullin: Roles in Renal Function and Sodium Homeostasis
  • 10
    Effects on Calcium Metabolism and Bone
    • 10.1
      Actions of Amylin
  • 11
    Other Biological Actions
    • 11.1
      Respiratory System
    • 11.2
      Effects in Endocrine Tissues Other than Pancreas
    • 11.3
      Effects in the Immune System
  • 12
    Receptors for Amylin and Related Proteins
    • 12.1
      Receptor Nomenclature
    • 12.2
      Pharmacological and Biochemical Studies
    • 12.3
      Calcitonin Receptors
    • 12.4
      Specific Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Binding Sites that Can Interact with Amylin
    • 12.5
      Amylin Binding to Skeletal Muscle and Liver
    • 12.6
      Biochemical Characterization of Putative Amylin and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Receptors
  • 13
    Disease Associations
    • 13.1
      Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
    • 13.2
      Animal Models of Insulin Resistance, Obesity, and Diabetes
    • 13.3
      Obesity and Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus in Humans
    • 13.4
      Other Diabetic Syndromes
    • 13.5
      Amylin in Endocrine Neoplasms
    • 13.6
      Relationship to Aging
    • 13.7
      Other Diseases
  • 14
    Conclusion and Future Prospects