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Regulation of Glucose Transporters by Insulin and Exercise: Cellular Effects and Implications for Diabetes

Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, The Endocrine Pancreas and Regulation of Metabolism

  1. Amira Klip1,
  2. Andre Marette2

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp070214

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Klip, A. and Marette, A. 2011. Regulation of Glucose Transporters by Insulin and Exercise: Cellular Effects and Implications for Diabetes. Comprehensive Physiology. 451–494.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Division of Cell Biology, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

  2. 2

    Department of Physiology, Laval University Hospital Research Centre, Ste-Foy, Quebec, Canada

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Properties of the Glucose Transporter Families
    • 1.1
      The GLUT Family
  • 2
    Acute Regulation of Glucose Transporters by Insulin-Responsive Tissues
    • 2.1
      The Glucose Transporter Recruitment Hypothesis
    • 2.2
      Insulin-Responsive Glucose Transporters
    • 2.3
      Testing and Verification of the Recruitment Hypothesis
  • 3
    Biochemical Characteristics of The Glut-4-Containing Organelle
    • 3.1
      Resident Proteins
    • 3.2
      Proteins Involved in Vesicle Docking and Fusion
    • 3.3
      Low-Molecular-Weight G Proteins
  • 4
    Insulin Signals Involved in The Mobilization of Glucose Transporters
    • 4.1
      Testing the Participation of a Signaling Pathway
  • 5
    Effects of Prolonged Exposure to Insulin on the Glucose Transporters
  • 6
    Regulation of Glucose Transporters by Exercise
    • 6.1
      Effects of Exercise In Vivo: Roles of Hypoxia, Blood Flow, and Muscle Fiber Composition
    • 6.2
      Glucose Transporters in Exercised Muscles
    • 6.3
      Signaling Mechanism of Contraction-Induced Glucose Transport
  • 7
    Glucose Transporters in Diabetes
    • 7.1
      Glucose Transporters in Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
    • 7.2
      Glucose Transporters in Obesity and Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
    • 7.3
      Proposed Mechanisms Leading to Impaired GLUT-4 Translocation in Diabetes
    • 7.4
      GLUT-4 Translocation Defect: Primary or Acquired?
    • 7.5
      Effects of Antidiabetic Drugs on Glucose Transporters
  • 8
    Lessons from the Manipulation of Glucose-Transporter Expression by Transgenic Mouse Approaches and Natural Mutations
    • 8.1
      GLUT-1 Overexpression in Muscle
    • 8.2
      GLUT-4 Overexpression in Tissues of Natural Expression
    • 8.3
      Selective Overexpression of GLUT-4 in Muscle
    • 8.4
      GLUT-4 Overexpression in Fat
    • 8.5
      GLUT-4 Ablation
    • 8.6
      A Naturally Occurring Genetic Abnormality in GLUT-1 Expression
  • 9
    Concluding Remarks