Standard Article

Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes

Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, The Endocrine Pancreas and Regulation of Metabolism

  1. Kenneth Cusi,
  2. Ralph A. Defronzo

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp070237

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Cusi, K. and Defronzo, R. A. 2011. Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes. Comprehensive Physiology. 1115–1168.

Author Information

  1. Division of Diabetes, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Insulin Secretion in T2DM
    • 1.1
      Fasting Insulin Concentration
    • 1.2
      Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion
    • 1.3
      Other Abnormalities in Insulin Secretion in T2DM
  • 2
    Mechanisms of Impaired Insulin Secretion
    • 2.1
      Glucose Toxicity
    • 2.2
      Lipotoxicity
    • 2.3
      Other Mechanisms of Impaired Insulin Secretion in T2DM
  • 3
    Impaired Insulin Secretion: Primary Genetic Defect Responsible for Type 2 Diabetes
    • 3.1
      Prospective Studies
    • 3.2
      Studies in First-Degree Relatives
    • 3.3
      Studies in Twins
    • 3.4
      Subjects with History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
  • 4
    Hypersecretion of Insulin as the Cause of Type 2 Diabetes: A New Hypothesis
  • 5
    Summary: Insulin Secretion in T2DM
  • 6
    Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetes
    • 6.1
      Site of Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes
    • 6.2
      Fasting Hyperglycemia: Role of Pancreas, Muscle and Liver
    • 6.3
      Postprandial Hyperglycemia: Lessons from the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
  • 7
    Dynamic Interaction Between Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
  • 8
    Cellular Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes
    • 8.1
      Overview of Insulin Action
    • 8.2
      Insulin Receptor/Insulin Receptor Signal Transduction Defects
    • 8.3
      Glucose Transport
    • 8.4
      Glucose Phosphorylation
    • 8.5
      Glycogen Synthesis
    • 8.6
      Glycolysis/Glucose Oxidation
  • 9
    Metabolic, Hemodynamic, Endocrine, and Cytokine Abnormalities in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    • 9.1
      Glucose Toxicity
    • 9.2
      Lipid Oxidation and Insulin Resistance
    • 9.3
      Skeletal Muscle Capillary Density, Fiber Type and Endothelial Transport
    • 9.4
      Blood Flow
    • 9.5
      Amylin and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide
    • 9.6
      Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha
    • 9.7
      Acquired Determinants of Insulin Resistance
  • 10
    Summary of Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
  • 11
    Genetic Defects
  • 12
    Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Summary and Synthesis
    • 12.1
      Primary Defect in Insulin Sensitivity
    • 12.2
      Primary Defect in Insulin Secretion?
    • 12.3
      Combined Defects in Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion
  • 13
    Conclusion