Standard Article

Insulin Resistance, Compensatory Hyperinsulinemia, and Coronary Heart Disease: Syndrome X Revisited

Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, The Endocrine Pancreas and Regulation of Metabolism

  1. Gerald M. Reaven

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp070238

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Reaven, G. M. 2011. Insulin Resistance, Compensatory Hyperinsulinemia, and Coronary Heart Disease: Syndrome X Revisited. Comprehensive Physiology. 1169–1197.

Author Information

  1. Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Terminology
  • 2
    Insulin Resistance Versus Compensatory Hyperinsulinemia
  • 3
    Nature Versus Nurture in The Development of Syndrome X
    • 3.1
      Ethnicity
    • 3.2
      Obesity: Overall and Regional
    • 3.3
      Habitual Physical Activity
    • 3.4
      Smoking
    • 3.5
      Alcohol
  • 4
    Glucose Intolerance
  • 5
    Dyslipidemia
    • 5.1
      Relationship between Insulin Resistance, Compensatory Hyperinsulinemia, Increased Hepatic VLDL-TG Secretion and Hypertriglyceridemia
    • 5.2
      Abnormalities Associated with Hypertriglyceridemia
  • 6
    Hemostatic System
  • 7
    Syndrome X and High Blood Pressure
  • 8
    Uric Acid
  • 9
    Microalbuminuria is not The “Cause” of Syndrome X!
  • 10
    Conclusion: Syndrome X and Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
    • 10.1
      Glucose Intolerance
    • 10.2
      Hypertriglyceridemia
    • 10.3
      Hypertension