Development of Individual Differences in Behavioral and Endocrine Responses to Stress: Role of the Postnatal Environment
Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, Coping with the Environment: Neural and Endocrine Mechanisms
Published Online: 1 JAN 2011
Copyright © 2010 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved.
How to Cite
Caldji, C., Liu, D., Sharma, S., Diorio, J., Francis, D., Meaney, M. J. and Plotsky, P. M. 2011. Development of Individual Differences in Behavioral and Endocrine Responses to Stress: Role of the Postnatal Environment. Comprehensive Physiology. 271–292.
- Published Online: 1 JAN 2011
The sections in this article are:
- 1Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Stress Response
- 2Environmental Regulation of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Development
- 2.1Effects of Handling (or Infantile Stimulation)
- 2.2Effects of Prolonged Periods of Maternal Separation
- 2.3Effects of Neonatal Endotoxin Exposure
- 3Summary of Early Environmental Effects
- 3.1Effects of Handling on Chronic Responses to Stress
- 3.2Acute Stress Responses in Handled and Nonhandled Rats: Revisited
- 5Biological Significance
- 6Early Environmental Effects: The Levine Maternal Mediation Hypothesis
- 6.1Stability of Individual Differences in Maternal Behavior
- 6.2Transmission of Individual Differences in Maternal Care to Offspring
- 6.3Mode of Transmission: Genomic or Nongenomic?