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Role of Endogenous Glucocorticoids in Immune System Function: Regulation and Counterregulation

Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, Coping with the Environment: Neural and Endocrine Mechanisms

  1. Robert L. Spencer1,
  2. Brian A. Kalman2,
  3. Firdaus S. Dhabhar3

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp070418

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Spencer, R. L., Kalman, B. A. and Dhabhar, F. S. 2011. Role of Endogenous Glucocorticoids in Immune System Function: Regulation and Counterregulation. Comprehensive Physiology. 381–423.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado

  2. 2

    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado

  3. 3

    Department of Oral Biology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    In Vivo Versus in Vitro Glucocorticoids
  • 2
    Natural Versus Synthetic Glucocorticoids
    • 2.1
      Corticosteroid Receptor Subtypes
    • 2.2
      Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin
  • 3
    Physiological Versus Nonphysiological Concentrations of Glucocorticoids
  • 4
    Factors Regulating Immune Cell Exposure to Glucocorticoids
    • 4.1
      Factors in the Absence of Immune Challenge
    • 4.2
      Factors in the Presence of Immune Challenge
  • 5
    Direct Effects of Glucocorticoids on Immune Cells
    • 5.1
      Molecular Features of Intracellular Glucocorticoid Receptors
    • 5.2
      Regulatory Effects of Glucocorticoids on the Expression of Immunologically Important Genes
    • 5.3
      Possible Alternative Mechanisms of Glucocorticoid Action
  • 6
    Strategies for Assessing the Role of Endogenous Glucocorticoids in Immune System Function
    • 6.1
      Circadian Studies
    • 6.2
      Stress Studies
    • 6.3
      In Vivo Secretagogue Stimulation Studies
    • 6.4
      Adrenalectomy and Glucocorticoid Replacement Studies
    • 6.5
      Other More Selective Manipulations of Glucocorticoid Action
  • 7
    Glucocorticoid Effects on Immune Subsystems
    • 7.1
      Immune Cell Maturation, Differentiation, and Turnover
    • 7.2
      Immune Cell Trafficking
    • 7.3
      Inflammation
    • 7.4
      Septic Shock
    • 7.5
      T helper 1 and T helper 2 Response
    • 7.6
      Antibody Production
    • 7.7
      Cytotoxicity and Delayed Type Hypersensitivity
  • 8
    General Models of Glucocorticoid Regulation of the Immune System
    • 8.1
      Counterregulatory Role of Glucocorticoids
    • 8.2
      Regulatory Role of Glucocorticoids
    • 8.3
      Regulatory Role of Glucocorticoids During Stress
    • 8.4
      Bidirectional Regulatory Effects of Glucocorticoids