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Somatostatin

Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, Hormonal Control of Growth

  1. Gloria Shaffer Tannenbaum1,
  2. Jacques Epelbaum2

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp070509

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Tannenbaum, G. S. and Epelbaum, J. 2011. Somatostatin. Comprehensive Physiology. 221–265.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Departments of Pediatrics, and Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University; and the McGill University-Montreal Children's Hospital Research Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

  2. 2

    INSERM U159, Unité de Dynamique des Systèmes Neuroendocriniens, Centre Paul Broca, Paris, France

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Historical Background
    • 1.1
      Discovery in Hypothalamus
    • 1.2
      Multiple Sites of Origin
    • 1.3
      Plurality of Effects
    • 1.4
      Identification of Various Forms
  • 2
    Anatomical Distribution of Somatostatin Cells
    • 2.1
      Phytogeny
    • 2.2
      Distribution in Central Nervous System
    • 2.3
      Colocalizations
    • 2.4
      Ontogeny
  • 3
    Molecular Biology and Biosynthesis of Hypothalamic Somatostatin
    • 3.1
      Gene Structure and Chromosomal Localization
    • 3.2
      Post-Translational Processing and Active Forms
    • 3.3
      Metabolism and Inactivation
    • 3.4
      Phytogeny of Somatostatin Peptides
  • 4
    Actions of Somatostatin
    • 4.1
      On Pituitary Gland
    • 4.2
      On Hypothalamus
    • 4.3
      On Somatic Growth
  • 5
    Somatostatin Receptors
    • 5.1
      Historical Background
    • 5.2
      Molecular Cloning of Somatostatin Receptor Genes
    • 5.3
      Molecular Pharmacology
    • 5.4
      Localization of Somatostatin Receptors in the Hypothalamo–Hypophysial Complex
    • 5.5
      Regulation of Somatostatin Receptor Gene Expression
  • 6
    Mechanisms of Action
  • 7
    Regulation of Somatostatin Secretion and Gene Expression
    • 7.1
      By Growth Hormone
    • 7.2
      By Insulin-like Growth Factors
    • 7.3
      By Other Hormones
    • 7.4
      By Neurotransmitters, Neuropeptides, and Cytokines
    • 7.5
      By Growth Hormone Secretogogues
    • 7.6
      Autoregulation
    • 7.7
      Sexual Dimorphism
    • 7.8
      Nutritional and Metabolic Factors
    • 7.9
      Aging
  • 8
    Somatostatin Implications in Disease
    • 8.1
      Inhibition of Growth Hormone Secretion and Tumor-Associated Symptoms in Acromegaly
    • 8.2
      In Vivo Imaging of Tumors
    • 8.3
      Diagnostic Efficacy in Growth Hormone Deficiency
  • 9
    Conclusion