Standard Article

Regulation of Gene Expression by Thyroid Hormones: Relation to Growth and Development

Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, Hormonal Control of Growth

  1. Gregory A. Brent

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp070524

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Brent, G. A. 2011. Regulation of Gene Expression by Thyroid Hormones: Relation to Growth and Development. Comprehensive Physiology. 757–781.

Author Information

  1. Departments of Medicine and Physiology, UCLA School of Medicine, and the Endocrinology and Metabolism Division, West Los Angeles VA Medical Center, Los Angeles, California

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Thyroid Hormone Response Elements
    • 1.1
      Standard Configuration and Sequences
    • 1.2
      Complex and Unusual Response Elements
    • 1.3
      Single Half-Site Elements
    • 1.4
      Influence of Response Element Position and Orientation on Gene Regulation
    • 1.5
      Elements that Confer a Negative Response to Thyroid Hormone
    • 1.6
      Response Elements that Confer Thyroid Hormone Receptor Isoform Specificity
  • 2
    Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Growth Hormone and Growth Factor Gene Expression
    • 2.1
      Characterization of DNA Elements that Confer Thyroid Hormone Response
    • 2.2
      Species Differences in Growth Hormone Gene Regulation
    • 2.3
      Influence of Retinoic Acid and cAMP on Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Gene Expression
    • 2.4
      Interactions of Thyroid Hormone Receptor and Pit-1 in Regulation of Growth Hormone Gene Expression
    • 2.5
      Thyroid Hormone Stimulation of Growth Hormone–Releasing Hormone Receptor Gene Expression
    • 2.6
      Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Growth Factors
  • 3
    Regulation of Gene Expression in Nervous System Development
    • 3.1
      Expression of Thyroid Hormone Receptor Isoforms in Neural Development
    • 3.2
      Effects of Hypothyroidism on Neural Development
    • 3.3
      Regulation of Neural Gene Expression
  • 4
    Regulation of Gene Expression in Bone
    • 4.1
      Clinical Effects of Thyroid Hormone on Bone
    • 4.2
      In Vitro Effects of Thyroid Hormone on Bone Cells
  • 5
    Thyroid Hormone Metabolism: Regulation of Ligand Availability
    • 5.1
      Characteristics and Tissue Distribution of Deiodinases
    • 5.2
      Regulation of Deiodinase Expression
    • 5.3
      Developmental Regulation of Deiodinase Expression
  • 6
    Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Gene Expression in Amphibian Metamorphosis
    • 6.1
      Regulation of Thyroid Hormone Receptor Gene Expression
    • 6.2
      Prolactin–Thyroid Hormone Interactions and Effects on Gene Expression
  • 7
    Growth and Developmental Abnormalities as A Consequence of Thyroid Hormone Deficiency
    • 7.1
      Congenital Hypothyroidism
    • 7.2
      Hypothyroidism of Infancy and Childhood
    • 7.3
      Iodine and Selenium Deficiency
    • 7.4
      Endemic Cretinism
  • 8
    Influence of Mutant Thyroid Receptors on Growth and Development
    • 8.1
      Genetic Basis of Resistance to Thyroid Hormone
    • 8.2
      Influence of Response Element Configuration and Thyroid Hormone Receptor Isoform on Response Inhibition by Mutant Receptors
    • 8.3
      Growth in Resistance to Thyroid Hormone as a Function of the Thyroid Hormone Receptor Mutant and Thyroid Hormone Treatment
    • 8.4
      Pituitary Resistance to Thyroid Hormone, Clinical Manifestations, and Mechanism
    • 8.5
      Animal Models of Resistance to Thyroid Hormone
  • 9
    Summary