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Mechanisms of Fluid Transport Across Renal Tubules

Handbook of Physiology, Renal Physiology

  1. James A. Schafer1,
  2. W. Brian Reeves2,
  3. Thomas E. Andreoli2

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp080115

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Schafer, J. A., Reeves, W. B. and Andreoli, T. E. 2011. Mechanisms of Fluid Transport Across Renal Tubules. Comprehensive Physiology. 659–713.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Departments of Physiology and Biophysics, and Medicine, Nephrology Research and Training Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama

  2. 2

    Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Arkansas College of Medicine, Little Rock, Arkansas

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Theoretical Foundations of Water Transport in Epithelia
  • 2
    Volume Absorption in the Proximal Tubule
  • 3
    Water Permeability of the Proximal Tubule
    • 3.1
      Measurement of Water Permeability
    • 3.2
      Importance of the Osmotic Water Permeability
  • 4
    Location of the Osmotic Gradient
    • 4.1
      Luminal Hypotonicity Produced by Solute Absorption
    • 4.2
      Absorbate Hypertonicity
  • 5
    “Passive” Driving Forces for Volume Absorption
    • 5.1
      NaCl Diffusion in Volume Absorption
    • 5.2
      Reflection Coefficient Differences
  • 6
    Models of Solute-Solvent Coupling in Proximal Volume Absorption
  • 7
    Routes of Volume Movement in the Proximal Nephron
    • 7.1
      Measurement of Cell Membrane Osmotic Water Permeabilities
  • 8
    Consequences of Transcellular Volume Flow
  • 9
    The ADH-Sensitive Distal Nephron
    • 9.1
      Measurement of Permeability Changes Produced by ADH
    • 9.2
      Wafer Permeability of ADH-Sensitive Nephron Segments in Vivo and in Vitro
  • 10
    Site of the Change in Water Permeability with ADH
  • 11
    Evaluation of the Pf/PDw Ratio
    • 11.1
      Large Pore Hypothesis
    • 11.2
      Unstirred Layer Effects
  • 12
    The Narrow Channel Hypothesis: Single-File Diffusion Through Small Aqueous Channels
  • 13
    ADH Increases the Number of Narrow Aqueous Channels in Apical Plasma Membranes
  • 14
    The Apparent EA for Water Transport in Cortical Collecting Tubules
    • 14.1
      The Raw Data
    • 14.2
      Correction for Diffusion Constraints in Series with Apical Membranes
    • 14.3
      The “True” EA for Water Transport
  • 15
    Pseudo-“Breaks” in EA Measurements
  • 16
    Comparison of ADH-Dependent Apical Membrane Water Channels with Gramicidin A Channels
  • 17
    Parallel Paths for Water and Solute Permeation
  • 18
    Morphologic Studies
  • 19
    Intracellular Mediators of ADH Action
    • 19.1
      Modulation of ADH Action—α-Adrenergic Agents
    • 19.2
      Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
  • 20
    Prostaglandins
    • 20.1
      Calcium
    • 20.2
      Protein Kinase C
  • 21
    Summary