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Renal Ammonia Production and Excretion

Handbook of Physiology, Renal Physiology

  1. Richard L. Tannen

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp080123

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Tannen, R. L. 2011. Renal Ammonia Production and Excretion. Comprehensive Physiology. 1017–1059.

Author Information

  1. Department of Medicine, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Role of Ammonia Excretion in the Maintenance of Acid–Base Balance
    • 1.1
      Overview of Acid–Base Balance
    • 1.2
      Renal Acidification Mechanisms
    • 1.3
      NH4 Excretion in Response to Acute and Chronic Acidosis
    • 1.4
      Relationship between Amino Acid Metabolism and Acid–Base Balance
  • 2
    Renal Ammonium Excretion
    • 2.1
      Nephron Sites of Ammonia Transport
    • 2.2
      Mechanism of Ammonia Transport across the Tubular Epithelium
    • 2.3
      Integrative View of Ammonia Excretion
    • 2.4
      Factors Altering Ammonia Excretion
  • 3
    Renal Ammonia Production
    • 3.1
      Substrates for Ammoniagenesis
    • 3.2
      Pathways of Ammonia Metabolism
    • 3.3
      Nephron Sites of Ammonia Production
  • 4
    Contribution of Extrarenal Organs to Ammonia Homeostasis
  • 5
    Response of Renal Ammonia Production to Acid-Base Perturbations
    • 5.1
      Acute Acidosis
    • 5.2
      Chronic Acidosis
    • 5.3
      Acute Alkalosis
    • 5.4
      Chronic Metabolic Alkalosis
  • 6
    Response of Ammonia Production to Alterations in K+ Homeostasis
    • 6.1
      Hypokalemia and Potassium Depletion
    • 6.2
      Hyperkalemia and Ingestion of a High-Potassium Diet
    • 6.3
      Influence of NH3 Production on K+ Excretion
  • 7
    Other Factors that Influence Ammoniagenesis
    • 7.1
      Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Intermediates
    • 7.2
      Prostaglandins
    • 7.3
      Intracellular Mediators (Cyclic AMP, Calcium, Phorbol Esters)
    • 7.4
      Adrenal Hormones
    • 7.5
      Other Hormones (Insulin, Growth Hormone, Angiotensin II)
    • 7.6
      Other Factors
  • 8
    Altered Ammonia Metabolism in Disease
    • 8.1
      Chronic Renal Failure
    • 8.2
      Ammonia-Induced Renal Injury
  • 9
    Reflections on the Future