Standard Article

Heat Exchange Between Human Skin Surface and Thermal Environment

Handbook of Physiology, Reactions to Environmental Agents

  1. A. Pharo Gagge,
  2. Yasunobu Nishi

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp090105

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Gagge, A. P. and Nishi, Y. 2011. Heat Exchange Between Human Skin Surface and Thermal Environment. Comprehensive Physiology. 69–92.

Author Information

  1. John B. Pierce Foundation and Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Body Heat Balance Equations
  • 2
    Independent Variables in Human Thermal Environment
    • 2.1
      Ambient Temperature
    • 2.2
      Dew-point Temperature and Ambient Vapor Pressure
    • 2.3
      Air (and Fluid) Movement
    • 2.4
      Mean Radiant Temperature or Effective Radiant Field
    • 2.5
      Clothing Insulation
    • 2.6
      Barometric Pressure
    • 2.7
      Time of Exposure
  • 3
    Dependent Physiological Variables in Body Heat Balance Equation
    • 3.1
      Mean Skin Temperature
    • 3.2
      Skin Wettedness
    • 3.3
      Body Heat Storage and Rate Change of Mean Body Temperature
    • 3.4
      Metabolic Energy
  • 4
    Sensible Heat Exchange by Radiation and Convection
    • 4.1
      Operative Temperature
    • 4.2
      Clothing in Sensible Heat Exchange
  • 5
    Radiation Exchange
    • 5.1
      Mean Radiant Temperature and Effective Radiant Field
    • 5.2
      Direct Evaluation of Effective Radiant Field
    • 5.3
      Solar Radiation
    • 5.4
      Measurement of Radiation Exchange
  • 6
    Convective Heat Exchange
    • 6.1
      Heat Transfer Theory
    • 6.2
      Free and Forced Convection
    • 6.3
      Measurement of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient
    • 6.4
      Effect of Barometric Pressure
  • 7
    Evaporative Heat Exchange
    • 7.1
      Direct Measurement of Evaporative Heat Loss
    • 7.2
      Maximum Evaporative Heat Loss from Skin Surface
    • 7.3
      The Lewis Relation Between Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficients
    • 7.4
      Skin Wettedness vs. Efficiency of Evaporative Regulation
  • 8
    Special Environments
    • 8.1
      Water Immersion
    • 8.2
      Hyperbaric Helium-Oxygen Atmospheres
  • 9
    Rational Temperature Indices of Thermal Environment
    • 9.1
      Operative Temperature
    • 9.2
      Humid Operative Temperature
    • 9.3
      Standard Operative Temperature
    • 9.4
      Standard Humid Operative Temperature
    • 9.5
      Standard Effective Temperature
    • 9.6
      A New Effective Temperature Index
  • 10
    Summary