Standard Article

Cutaneous Allergic Response

Handbook of Physiology, Reactions to Environmental Agents

  1. Rudolf L. Baer1,
  2. David R. Bickers2

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp090120

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Baer, R. L. and Bickers, D. R. 2011. Cutaneous Allergic Response. Comprehensive Physiology. 323–336.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Dermatology, New York, University School of Medicine, New York, New York

  2. 2

    Department of Dermatology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Obligatory Damaging Factors
  • 2
    Nonobligatory Damaging Factors
  • 3
    The Immune System
  • 4
    Sequence of Events in Allergic Sensitization
  • 5
    Requirements for Antigenicity
    • 5.1
      Incomplete Antigens
    • 5.2
      Carrier Molecules
  • 6
    Lymphocytes
    • 6.1
      B and T Cells
  • 7
    Macrophages
  • 8
    Immediate Hypersensitivity
    • 8.1
      Antibodies
    • 8.2
      Pharmacological Mediators
  • 9
    Delayed Hypersensitivity
    • 9.1
      Lymphocyte Transformation
    • 9.2
      Lymphokines
  • 10
    Delayed Versus Immediate Hypersensitivity
  • 11
    Route of Exposure
  • 12
    Role of Peripheral Sensitization and of Lymph Nodes
  • 13
    Amplification
  • 14
    Sensitizing and Tolerogenic Effects
  • 15
    Immunologic State of the Host
    • 15.1
      Genetic Factors
    • 15.2
      Conditions of Exposure
    • 15.3
      Immunologic Deficiencies
  • 16
    Environmental Allergenic Substances
    • 16.1
      Small Molecular Allergens in Nature
    • 16.2
      Man-Made Small Molecular Allergens
    • 16.3
      Microorganisms
    • 16.4
      Allergens from Flora and Fauna
  • 17
    Clinical Expressions of Cutaneous Allergic Reactions
    • 17.1
      Eczematous Allergic Reactions
    • 17.2
      Indurated Inflammatory Reactions
    • 17.3
      Urticarial Reactions and Angioneurotic Edemas
  • 18
    Combined Effects of Environmental Allergens and Radiant Energy
  • 19
    Autoimmune Cutaneous Reactions
  • 20
    Conclusions