Standard Article

Kinesthesia: Roles for Afferent Signals and Motor Commands

Handbook of Physiology, Exercise: Regulation and Integration of Multiple Systems

  1. Simon C. Gandevia

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp120104

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Gandevia, S. C. 2011. Kinesthesia: Roles for Afferent Signals and Motor Commands. Comprehensive Physiology. 128–172.

Author Information

  1. Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Historical Perspectives
  • 2
    Current Definitions
  • 3
    Properties of Kinesthetic Afferents
    • 3.1
      Muscle Spindles
    • 3.2
      Tendon Organ Afferents
    • 3.3
      Joint Afferents
    • 3.4
      Cutaneous Afferents
    • 3.5
      Possible Kinesthetic Role for Group III and IV Fibers
    • 3.6
      Cortical Projections
  • 4
    Kinesthetic Mechanisms in Isolation
    • 4.1
      Illusions Produced by Stimulation of Kinesthetic Afferents
    • 4.2
      Electrical Stimulation of Muscle, Joint, and Cutaneous Afferents
    • 4.3
      Sensations of Joint Position and Movement
    • 4.4
      Assessment of Movement Sensation
    • 4.5
      Senses of Force and Heaviness
    • 4.6
      Sense of Timing of Muscle Action
    • 4.7
      Other Roles for Motor Commands
  • 5
    Deafferentation
  • 6
    Functional Aspects of Kinesthesia
    • 6.1
      Body Schema
    • 6.2
      Muscle Fatigue
    • 6.3
      Altered Kinesthesia with Aging
    • 6.4
      Changes in Kinesthesia with Joint Pathology
  • 7
    Conclusions