Standard Article

Postural Orientation and Equilibrium

Handbook of Physiology, Exercise: Regulation and Integration of Multiple Systems

  1. Fay B. Horak,
  2. Jane M. Macpherson

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp120107

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Horak, F. B. and Macpherson, J. M. 2011. Postural Orientation and Equilibrium. Comprehensive Physiology. 255–292.

Author Information

  1. R.S. Dow Neurological Sciences Institute Legacy Good Samaritan Hospital & Medical Center, Portland, Oregon

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Neural Control of Postural Orientation and Equilibrium
    • 1.1
      Behavioral Goals
    • 1.2
      Biomechanical Principles
    • 1.3
      Postural Strategies
  • 2
    Postural Orientation
    • 2.1
      Stiffness and Tonic Muscle Activation
    • 2.2
      Controlling Postural Orientation
    • 2.3
      Internal Representation of Postural Orientation
  • 3
    Coordination of Postural Equilibrium
    • 3.1
      Triggered Reactions to External Disturbances
    • 3.2
      Anticipatory Postural Adjustments for Voluntary Movement
    • 3.3
      Modeling of Postural Coordination
  • 4
    Sensory Control of Postural Orientation and Equilibrium
    • 4.1
      Sensory Integration
    • 4.2
      Somatosensory System
    • 4.3
      Vestibular System
    • 4.4
      Visual System
  • 5
    Central Neural Control of Posture
    • 5.1
      Spinal Cord and Brainstem
    • 5.2
      Basal Ganglia
    • 5.3
      Cerebellum
    • 5.4
      Cerebral Cortex
  • 6
    Concluding Remarks