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Airway, Lung, and Respiratory Muscle Function During Exercise

Handbook of Physiology, Exercise: Regulation and Integration of Multiple Systems

  1. Jerome A. Dempsey1,
  2. Lewis Adams2,
  3. Dorothy M. Ainsworth3,
  4. Ralph F. Fregosi4,
  5. Charles G. Gallagher5,
  6. Abe Guz6,
  7. Bruce D. Johnson7,
  8. Scott K. Powers8

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp120111

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Dempsey, J. A., Adams, L., Ainsworth, D. M., Fregosi, R. F., Gallagher, C. G., Guz, A., Johnson, B. D. and Powers, S. K. 2011. Airway, Lung, and Respiratory Muscle Function During Exercise. Comprehensive Physiology. 448–514.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin

  2. 2

    Department of Medicine, Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, London, United Kingdom

  3. 3

    Department of Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

  4. 4

    Department of Physiology, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, Arizona

  5. 5

    Division of Respiratory Medicine, Royal University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

  6. 6

    Department of Medicine, Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, London, United Kingdom

  7. 7

    Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota

  8. 8

    Departments of Exercise Science and Physiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Regulation of the Upper Airway During Exercise
    • 1.1
      Anatomy and Physiology of the Upper Airway
    • 1.2
      Contractile Properties and Endurance of Upper Airway Muscles
    • 1.3
      Changes in Upper Airway Flow Resistance During Exercise
    • 1.4
      Upper Airway Muscle Activities during Exercise
    • 1.5
      Oronasal Distribution of Respiratory Airflow
  • 2
    Effects of Exercise on Passive Respiratory Mechanics
    • 2.1
      Elastic Properties
    • 2.2
      Total Lung Capacity
    • 2.3
      Expiratory Flow Rates, Vital Capacity, and Residual Volume
  • 3
    Breathing Pattern During Exercise
    • 3.1
      Mechanical Breathing Pattern
    • 3.2
      Methods of Assessment of Respiratory Muscle Contraction
    • 3.3
      Pattern of Respiratory Muscle Contraction
    • 3.4
      Influence of Sensory Feedback on Breathing Pattern
    • 3.5
      Influence of Respiratory Mechanics on Breathing Pattern
    • 3.6
      Influence of Duration of Exercise on Breathing Pattern
    • 3.7
      Influence of Mode of Exercise on Breathing Pattern
    • 3.8
      Breathing Pattern during Recovery from Exercise
    • 3.9
      Physiological Implications of Exercise Breathing Pattern
  • 4
    Importance of Respiratory Load in Regulation of Exercise Hyperpnea
    • 4.1
      Helium-Oxygen Unloading
    • 4.2
      Unloading with Pressure Assist
    • 4.3
      Conclusion
  • 5
    Locomotor-Respiration Interdependence
    • 5.1
      Entrainment—the Most Obvious Locomotor-Respiratory Interaction
    • 5.2
      How Does Entrainment Effect Ventilation?
    • 5.3
      Is there Stronger Evidence to Support a Significant Biomechanical Effect of Locomotion on Respiration in Dogs?
    • 5.4
      Are Biomechanical Effects Important in Entrainment in Humans?
    • 5.5
      Locomotory: Respiratory Interactions, Independent of Entrainment
    • 5.6
      Conclusion
  • 6
    Respiratory Muscle Perfusion and Energetics
    • 6.1
      Oxygen Cost of Hyperpnea
    • 6.2
      Respiratory Muscle Blood Flow
  • 7
    Exercise-Induced Respiratory Muscle Fatigue
    • 7.1
      Respiratory System Design
  • 8
    Assessment of Diaphragm Fatigue in Animal Models
    • 8.1
      Glycogen Depletion
    • 8.2
      Fiber Type Recruitment
  • 9
    Definition of Fatigue
    • 9.1
      Task Failure vs. Objective Assessment of Fatigue
    • 9.2
      Contractile Changes with Fatigue
  • 10
    Predicting Respiratory Muscle Fatigue During Exercise
    • 10.1
      Application of Resting Tests to Respiratory Muscle Function During Exercise
  • 11
    Assessment of Respiratory Muscle Fatigue in Humans
    • 11.1
      Volitional Tests
    • 11.2
      Volitional Tests Applied to Exercise
    • 11.3
      Nonvolitional Tests
    • 11.4
      Bilateral Phrenic Nerve Stimulation (BPNS)
  • 12
    Characteristics of Diaphragm Fatigue
    • 12.1
      High- vs. Low-Frequency Fatigue
    • 12.2
      Sites and Mechanisms of Respiratory Muscle Fatigue
    • 12.3
      Central Fatigue in Humans
    • 12.4
      Neurotransmission Fatigue
  • 13
    Bilateral Phrenic Nerve Stimulation Applied to Exercise
    • 13.1
      Short-Term Exercise
    • 13.2
      Endurance Exercise
    • 13.3
      Factors Contributing to the Decline in Twitch Pdi Following Exercise
    • 13.4
      Role of Diaphragmatic Force Output in Fatigue
  • 14
    Consequences of Exercise-Induced Diaphragmatic Fatigue
    • 14.1
      Fatigue vs. Task Failure
    • 14.2
      Does Training of Respiratory Muscles Affect Exercise Performance?
    • 14.3
      Altered Respiratory Muscle Recruitment with Fatigue
  • 15
    Physical Training Effects on Respiratory Muscles
    • 15.1
      Respiratory Muscle Morphology and Contractile Properties
    • 15.2
      Whole-Body Training: Effects on Rodent Respiratory Muscles
    • 15.3
      Whole-Body Exercise: Effects on Human Respiratory Muscle Performance
    • 15.4
      Specific Respiratory Muscle Training
  • 16
    Respiratory Sensation During Exertion
    • 16.1
      Mechanisms of Respiratory Sensations during Exercise
    • 16.2
      Methods of Assessing Respiratory Sensations
    • 16.3
      Respiratory Movements
    • 16.4
      An Urge to Breathe
    • 16.5
      A Sense of Respiratory Effort
    • 16.6
      Respiratory Sensation as a Respiratory Controller during Exercise
    • 16.7
      Respiratory Sensation as a Limiting Factor during Exercise
    • 16.8
      Conclusions
  • 17
    Summary—Pulmonary System Limitations and Their Effects on Exercise Performance
    • 17.1
      Absence of Pulmonary System Limitations in the Normally Fit
  • 18
    Contrasting Adaptabilities: Demand vs. Capacity
    • 18.1
      Alveolar Capillary Diffusion Surface of the Lung
    • 18.2
      Ventilatory Limitations/Constraints
    • 18.3
      Inadequate Alveolar Ventilation and inline image Limitations
    • 18.4
      Endurance Exercise Performance
  • 19
    Special Circumstances Favoring Pulmonary Limitations to Exercise Performance in Health
    • 19.1
      Hypoxia of High Altitudes
    • 19.2
      Aging Effects on Pulmonary Limitations