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Vertebrate Locomotion

Handbook of Physiology, Comparative Physiology

  1. Carl Gans1,
  2. Abbot S. Gaunt2,
  3. Paul W. Webb3

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp130103

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Gans, C., Gaunt, A. S. and Webb, P. W. 2011. Vertebrate Locomotion. Comprehensive Physiology. 55–213.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

  2. 2

    Department of Zoology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

  3. 3

    Department of Biology and School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Techniques in the Study of Locomotion
    • 1.1
      History
    • 1.2
      Diversity and Natural History
    • 1.3
      Kinematic Techniques
    • 1.4
      Dynamics
    • 1.5
      Muscle Activities
  • 2
    The Physics of Movement
    • 2.1
      Motions and Performance
    • 2.2
      Forces
    • 2.3
      Proportions: The Physics of Size
  • 3
    Evolutionary Transitions in Locomotor Patterns
    • 3.1
      History and Locomotion of Extinct Animals
    • 3.2
      Development of Chordate Locomotion
    • 3.3
      The Swimming Radiation
    • 3.4
      The Terrestrial Invasion
    • 3.5
      Tetrapod Elongation, Limb Loss, and Burrowing
    • 3.6
      Lateral to Vertical Undulation
    • 3.7
      Origins of Flight
  • 4
    Exemplary Studies on Locomotion in Life form Groups
    • 4.1
      Phylogeny and Modes of Locomotion
    • 4.2
      Overviews of Phenotypes
    • 4.3
      Fishes
    • 4.4
      Amphibians and Reptiles: Ectothermal Tetrapods
    • 4.5
      Mammals
    • 4.6
      Birds and Bats
  • 5
    Conclusion