Standard Article

Vertebrate Gastrointestinal System

Handbook of Physiology, Comparative Physiology

  1. William H. Karasov1,
  2. Ian D. Hume2

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp130107

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Karasov, W. H. and Hume, I. D. 2011. Vertebrate Gastrointestinal System. Comprehensive Physiology. 409–480.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

  2. 2

    School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Matching Food Intake, Throughput, Breakdown, and Absorption: Integrative Models
    • 1.1
      Utility of the Modeling Approach
    • 1.2
      General Features of Reactor-Based Models
    • 1.3
      Reactor Models Applied to Animal Guts
  • 2
    Optimizing Retention Time to Rate and Efficiency of Nutrient Extraction
    • 2.1
      Matching Overall Digesta Retention Time to Metabolic Needs
    • 2.2
      Matching Pulsatile Patterns of Food Intake to Continuous-Flow Digestive Systems
  • 3
    Chemical Breakdown
    • 3.1
      Survey of Chemical Breakdown of Food Components across Vertebrate Species
    • 3.2
      Specific Modulation of Catalytic Enzymes within Species in Relation to Diet
    • 3.3
      Modulation of Catalytic Enzymes during Development
  • 4
    Microbial Fermentation
    • 4.1
      Microbial Habitats in the Gut
    • 4.2
      Rates of Fermentation
    • 4.3
      Models of Fermentation Systems
    • 4.4
      Modulation of Fermentation Capacity and Digesta Retention
    • 4.5
      Modulation of Retention Times of Digesta Components
  • 5
    Absorption
    • 5.1
      Pathways for Absorption of Organic Solutes
    • 5.2
      Mechanistic Bases for Differences in Absorption within and between Species
    • 5.3
      Nutrient Absorption and Dietary Composition
    • 5.4
      Developmental Adaptation to Diet
    • 5.5
      Nutrient Absorption and Level of Food Intake
    • 5.6
      Absorption in Relation to other Digestive and Metabolic Processes
  • 6
    Water and Electrolytes
    • 6.1
      Mechanisms of Wafer and Ion Movement across Membranes
    • 6.2
      Quantitative Aspects and Adaptive Significance
  • 7
    Conclusion
    • 7.1
      Toward an Ecological Physiology of Food Exploitation
    • 7.2
      Areas for Future Research